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2018年北大中文核心期刊目录 电力工程师职称  水利施工  浙江大学学报

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工程造价论文建设工程造价管理之我见

发布时间:2014-07-15 15:39:08更(geng)新时(shi)间:2014-07-15 15:39:37所属分类:项目管理论文浏览:1次 更多优质资料,可以联系在线客服索取!

建设工程造价管理是工程建设管理的一个重要组成部分,它能有效保障投资方的投资效益,促进工程建设顺利进行。合理确定并有效的控制工程造价是造价管理的两个方面。工程造价的确定是指计算和确定工程造价和投资费用,工程造价的控制是按照既定的造价目标,对

  建设(she)工程(cheng)造(zao)(zao)价(jia)(jia)管理(li)(li)是(shi)工程(cheng)建设(she)管理(li)(li)的(de)(de)一个(ge)重(zhong)要组成部分,它能有效保障投(tou)资(zi)方的(de)(de)投(tou)资(zi)效益,促进(jin)工程(cheng)建设(she)顺利进(jin)行(xing)。合理(li)(li)确(que)(que)定(ding)并有效的(de)(de)控制(zhi)工程(cheng)造(zao)(zao)价(jia)(jia)是(shi)造(zao)(zao)价(jia)(jia)管理(li)(li)的(de)(de)两个(ge)方面。工程(cheng)造(zao)(zao)价(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)确(que)(que)定(ding)是(shi)指计(ji)算(suan)和(he)(he)(he)确(que)(que)定(ding)工程(cheng)造(zao)(zao)价(jia)(jia)和(he)(he)(he)投(tou)资(zi)费用(yong),工程(cheng)造(zao)(zao)价(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)控制(zhi)是(shi)按(an)照既定(ding)的(de)(de)造(zao)(zao)价(jia)(jia)目标(biao),对造(zao)(zao)价(jia)(jia)形成过程(cheng)的(de)(de)一切费用(yong)进(jin)行(xing)严格(ge)的(de)(de)计(ji)算(suan)、调节和(he)(he)(he)监督,揭(jie)示(shi)偏差(cha),及时纠(jiu)正(zheng),保证造(zao)(zao)价(jia)(jia)目标(biao)的(de)(de)实现(xian)。工程(cheng)造(zao)(zao)价(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)确(que)(que)定(ding)与控制(zhi)是(shi)一种相互依存、相辅相成的(de)(de)关系。

  摘要(yao)(yao):本文作者介绍了(le)基本建设工(gong)(gong)(gong)程造(zao)价(jia)管理(li)的(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)作用(yong),论述了(le)建设项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)投资决策(ce)阶段、项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)设计阶段、项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)实(shi)施阶段及建设项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)后(hou)评(ping)估阶段工(gong)(gong)(gong)程造(zao)价(jia)的(de)计算(suan)与控(kong)制方法和手段,说(shuo)明了(le)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程造(zao)价(jia)的(de)合理(li)确定与有效控(kong)制贯穿建设项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)始(shi)终的(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)性并涉及了(le)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)各阶段工(gong)(gong)(gong)程造(zao)价(jia)与评(ping)估的(de)重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)特征,从而更好地控(kong)制工(gong)(gong)(gong)程造(zao)价(jia)。

  关键词:工程造价论文,建设工程,造价管理

  1 项目投资决(jue)策阶段工程造价(jia)的(de)计(ji)价(jia)与控制

  项(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)目投(tou)(tou)(tou)资(zi)(zi)(zi)决(jue)(jue)策(ce)(ce)是选(xuan)(xuan)择和(he)(he)决(jue)(jue)定(ding)投(tou)(tou)(tou)资(zi)(zi)(zi)行为方(fang)(fang)案(an)的(de)(de)(de)过(guo)程(cheng),是对(dui)拟建(jian)(jian)项(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)目的(de)(de)(de)必要性和(he)(he)可行性进行技术论证,对(dui)不同(tong)建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)方(fang)(fang)案(an)进行技术经济比较及做出判断和(he)(he)决(jue)(jue)策(ce)(ce)的(de)(de)(de)过(guo)程(cheng)。正确(que)(que)的(de)(de)(de)项(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)目决(jue)(jue)策(ce)(ce),意味着(zhe)对(dui)项(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)目建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)做出科学(xue)的(de)(de)(de)决(jue)(jue)断,优选(xuan)(xuan)出最佳投(tou)(tou)(tou)资(zi)(zi)(zi)行为方(fang)(fang)案(an),达(da)到实现资(zi)(zi)(zi)源的(de)(de)(de)合(he)(he)(he)理(li)配置,它是合(he)(he)(he)理(li)确(que)(que)定(ding)和(he)(he)有(you)效控制工(gong)程(cheng)造价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)前提。在项(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)目投(tou)(tou)(tou)资(zi)(zi)(zi)决(jue)(jue)策(ce)(ce)阶段,首(shou)先要解决(jue)(jue)好影响工(gong)程(cheng)造价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)以下几个因(yin)素:确(que)(que)定(ding)项(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)目的(de)(de)(de)合(he)(he)(he)理(li)规(gui)模;确(que)(que)定(ding)合(he)(he)(he)适(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)(de)建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)标准;遵守“靠近(jin)原料、燃料提供地(di)和(he)(he)产(chan)品消费地(di)及工(gong)业项(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)目适(shi)(shi)当聚集的(de)(de)(de)原则”选(xuan)(xuan)择建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)地(di)区及建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)地(di)点:确(que)(que)定(ding)先进适(shi)(shi)用(yong)、经济合(he)(he)(he)理(li)的(de)(de)(de)生产(chan)工(gong)艺和(he)(he)平面布置方(fang)(fang)案(an):合(he)(he)(he)理(li)选(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)设(she)(she)备。其次是认真(zhen)编制项(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)目可行性研究报告和(he)(he)投(tou)(tou)(tou)资(zi)(zi)(zi)估算,前者为项(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)目投(tou)(tou)(tou)资(zi)(zi)(zi)决(jue)(jue)策(ce)(ce)提供科学(xue)的(de)(de)(de)依据,后者在项(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)目建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)全过(guo)程(cheng)中起到控制总投(tou)(tou)(tou)资(zi)(zi)(zi)的(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)用(yong)。

  2 建(jian)设(she)项目(mu)设(she)计(ji)阶段工程造价的计(ji)价与控制

  设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan)控制(zhi)(zhi)工(gong)程(cheng)造(zao)价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)有(you)(you)效方(fang)(fang)(fang)法(fa)是(shi)通过(guo)(guo)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)招标(biao)(biao)和设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)方(fang)(fang)(fang)案(an)(an)竞(jing)(jing)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)优化设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)方(fang)(fang)(fang)。通过(guo)(guo)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)招标(biao)(biao),引入竞(jing)(jing)争机制(zhi)(zhi),促使设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)单位改进管理,采(cai)用(yong)(yong)(yong)先(xian)进技术(shu)(shu),推(tui)行限(xian)额(e)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji),降(jiang)低工(gong)程(cheng)成本,提高(gao)投资(zi)效益。设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)方(fang)(fang)(fang)案(an)(an)优选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)是(shi)优化设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)方(fang)(fang)(fang)案(an)(an)的(de)(de)(de)有(you)(you)效方(fang)(fang)(fang)法(fa),通过(guo)(guo)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)方(fang)(fang)(fang)案(an)(an)竞(jing)(jing)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan),有(you)(you)利(li)于多种设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)方(fang)(fang)(fang)案(an)(an)的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择和竞(jing)(jing)争,从中选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择最(zui)佳方(fang)(fang)(fang)案(an)(an):有(you)(you)利(li)于控制(zhi)(zhi)项(xiang)目投资(zi)。最(zui)佳设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)方(fang)(fang)(fang)案(an)(an)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)出后,中标(biao)(biao)的(de)(de)(de)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)单位应(ying)充分利(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)限(xian)额(e)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)这一控制(zhi)(zhi)工(gong)程(cheng)造(zao)价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)重要手段(duan)(duan)(duan),处(chu)理好(hao)技术(shu)(shu)与经(jing)(jing)(jing)济的(de)(de)(de)对立统(tong)一关系(xi),按照批(pi)准的(de)(de)(de)初步设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)总概算控制(zhi)(zhi)技术(shu)(shu)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)和施(shi)工(gong)图设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji),同时各(ge)专业在(zai)保证达到(dao)使用(yong)(yong)(yong)功能的(de)(de)(de)前提下按分配的(de)(de)(de)投资(zi)额(e)控制(zhi)(zhi)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji),解决好(hao)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)人员长(zhang)期以来形成的(de)(de)(de)重技术(shu)(shu)经(jing)(jing)(jing)济的(de)(de)(de)思(si)想,提高(gao)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)人员的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)程(cheng)造(zao)价(jia)意(yi)识,保证投资(zi)总额(e)不突(tu)破。设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan)工(gong)程(cheng)造(zao)价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)确(que)定(ding)(ding)(ding)主要是(shi)编制(zhi)(zhi)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)概算和施(shi)工(gong)图预算,设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)概算是(shi)在(zai)初步设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan)或扩(kuo)大(da)初步设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan),由设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)单位根据(ju)初步设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或扩(kuo)大(da)初步设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)图纸、国家有(you)(you)关部门颁布(bu)实施(shi)的(de)(de)(de)概算定(ding)(ding)(ding)额(e)或概算指标(biao)(biao)、费用(yong)(yong)(yong)定(ding)(ding)(ding)额(e)以及当时当地的(de)(de)(de)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)备、材(cai)料市场价(jia)格等资(zi)料编制(zhi)(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)拟建项(xiang)目从筹建到(dao)竣工(gong)交付使用(yong)(yong)(yong)所需全部费用(yong)(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)文件(jian),它是(shi)设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)文件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)组成部分,经(jing)(jing)(jing)有(you)(you)关部门批(pi)准后,即为控制(zhi)(zhi)拟建项(xiang)目的(de)(de)(de)最(zui)高(gao)限(xian)额(e)。在(zai)施(shi)工(gong)图设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan),设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)单位可按照国家有(you)(you)关规定(ding)(ding)(ding),编制(zhi)(zhi)施(shi)工(gong)图预算,用(yong)(yong)(yong)以核实施(shi)工(gong)图设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan)造(zao)价(jia)是(shi)否超(chao)过(guo)(guo)批(pi)准的(de)(de)(de)初步设(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)概算。

  3 建设项目实施阶段工程(cheng)造价的计(ji)算与控制(zhi)

  在(zai)(zai)建设(she)(she)(she)(she)项目(mu)(mu)(mu)发包(bao)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)。控制(zhi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)造价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)(yao)手(shou)(shou)段(duan)(duan)就是积极推(tui)行(xing)(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)清(qing)(qing)(qing)单(dan)(dan),做好招投标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作。在(zai)(zai)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)招投标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)活动(dong)中,积极推(tui)行(xing)(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)清(qing)(qing)(qing)单(dan)(dan)是与国际惯例接轨,适应建设(she)(she)(she)(she)市场(chang)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)机制(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)需要(yao)(yao)。工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)清(qing)(qing)(qing)单(dan)(dan)是招标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)文件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)(yao)组(zu)成(cheng)部分(fen),是招标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)方(fang)对(dui)招标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)全(quan)部项目(mu)(mu)(mu),依(yi)据招标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)文件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)相关要(yao)(yao)求,结合施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)图纸以及(ji)(ji)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)现(xian)场(chang)条件(jian)(jian),按统一(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)计(ji)算规则、分(fen)部分(fen)项工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)项目(mu)(mu)(mu)划分(fen)和计(ji)量(liang)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)计(ji)算出的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)数(shu)量(liang)清(qing)(qing)(qing)单(dan)(dan),是提供给潜在(zai)(zai)投标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)人报价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)依(yi)据。工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)清(qing)(qing)(qing)单(dan)(dan)计(ji)价(jia)与传统的(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)额计(ji)价(jia)模式相比(bi)有(you)(you)(you)以下(xia)优点:采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)清(qing)(qing)(qing)单(dan)(dan)计(ji)价(jia)明确地反(fan)映(ying)了(le)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)实(shi)(shi)物(wu)消耗和有(you)(you)(you)关费(fei)用(yong),把过(guo)去传统的(de)(de)(de)(de)以预算定(ding)额为基础的(de)(de)(de)(de)静(jing)态(tai)价(jia)格(ge)模式改变(bian)为将(jiang)各种经(jing)济、技术、质(zhi)量(liang)、进度、市场(chang)等(deng)(deng)因(yin)素充分(fen)细化考虑到单(dan)(dan)价(jia)中的(de)(de)(de)(de)“动(dong)态(tai)价(jia)格(ge)”形(xing)式,所(suo)反(fan)映(ying)的(de)(de)(de)(de)是工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)个(ge)别成(cheng)本:采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)清(qing)(qing)(qing)单(dan)(dan)报价(jia)时(shi)必须充分(fen)考虑工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)期和质(zhi)量(liang)对(dui)造价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)因(yin)素,有(you)(you)(you)利(li)于工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)“质(zhi)”与“量(liang)”的(de)(de)(de)(de)紧密(mi)结合;采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)清(qing)(qing)(qing)单(dan)(dan)报价(jia),业主将(jiang)承担(dan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)计(ji)算误差和设(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)变(bian)更造成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)风险,施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)企业将(jiang)承担(dan)价(jia)格(ge)变(bian)化引起的(de)(de)(de)(de)风险,以实(shi)(shi)行(xing)(xing)风险分(fen)担(dan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)(yuan)则。同(tong)时(shi),采(cai)(cai)(cai)用(yong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)清(qing)(qing)(qing)单(dan)(dan)报价(jia)可(ke)以消除编(bian)制(zhi)标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)底给招投标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)活动(dong)带(dai)来的(de)(de)(de)(de)负(fu)面影响(xiang),促使投标(biao)(biao)(biao)(biao)企业把主要(yao)(yao)精(jing)力放在(zai)(zai)加(jia)强内部管(guan)理(li)和对(dui)市场(chang)各种因(yin)素及(ji)(ji)竞争对(dui)手(shou)(shou)分(fen)析中去。建设(she)(she)(she)(she)项目(mu)(mu)(mu)实(shi)(shi)施(shi)(shi)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan),即(ji)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan),是通过(guo)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人们的(de)(de)(de)(de)劳动(dong),将(jiang)原(yuan)(yuan)材(cai)料、半成(cheng)品、设(she)(she)(she)(she)备(bei)等(deng)(deng)物(wu)化因(yin)素构成(cheng)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)实(shi)(shi)体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng),施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)造价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)确定(ding)与控制(zhi)是建设(she)(she)(she)(she)项目(mu)(mu)(mu)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)全(quan)过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)造价(jia)管(guan)理(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)(yao)组(zu)成(cheng)部分(fen)。在(zai)(zai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)实(shi)(shi)施(shi)(shi)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan),建设(she)(she)(she)(she)单(dan)(dan)位(wei)造价(jia)管(guan)理(li)人员应严(yan)格(ge)审查承包(bao)方(fang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)清(qing)(qing)(qing)单(dan)(dan)、基本单(dan)(dan)位(wei)、工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)造价(jia)等(deng)(deng)费(fei)用(yong)文件(jian)(jian),深入(ru)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)现(xian)场(chang),掌握第(di)一(yi)手(shou)(shou)资料,如工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)条件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)变(bian)化、材(cai)料的(de)(de)(de)(de)代换、工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)增减(jian)等(deng)(deng),严(yan)格(ge)控制(zhi)设(she)(she)(she)(she)计(ji)变(bian)更,根据合同(tong)条款(kuan)对(dui)承包(bao)方(fang)提供的(de)(de)(de)(de)变(bian)更价(jia)款(kuan)进行(xing)(xing)审核处(chu)理(li)。同(tong)时(shi)要(yao)(yao)加(jia)强索赔的(de)(de)(de)(de)前瞻性,对(dui)可(ke)能(neng)引起的(de)(de)(de)(de)索赔有(you)(you)(you)所(suo)预测(ce),及(ji)(ji)时(shi)采(cai)(cai)(cai)取补救措施(shi)(shi),有(you)(you)(you)效避免过(guo)多索赔事(shi)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发生。

  4 建设项目后评(ping)价阶(jie)段(duan)工程(cheng)造价的(de)管理

  建(jian)设项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)后评(ping)价(jia)是(shi)指对(dui)已经(jing)完(wan)成的(de)(de)(de)(de)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(或规划)的(de)(de)(de)(de)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)、执行(xing)过程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)、效益(yi)、作用和(he)(he)影(ying)响(xiang)所(suo)进行(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)系统的(de)(de)(de)(de)、客(ke)观的(de)(de)(de)(de)分析;通(tong)过对(dui)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)活动实(shi)践的(de)(de)(de)(de)检查(cha)总(zong)(zong)结,确定项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)预期(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)标是(shi)否(fou)(fou)达到(dao)(dao),项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)或规划是(shi)否(fou)(fou)合理有效,项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要指标是(shi)否(fou)(fou)实(shi)现;通(tong)过分析评(ping)价(jia)找出(chu)(chu)(chu)成败(bai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)原因,总(zong)(zong)结经(jing)验(yan)教训:并(bing)通(tong)过及时有效的(de)(de)(de)(de)信(xin)息反馈,为(wei)未来(lai)新项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)决(jue)策和(he)(he)提(ti)高(gao)完(wan)善投(tou)资(zi)决(jue)策管理水平提(ti)出(chu)(chu)(chu)建(jian)议(yi),同时也为(wei)后评(ping)价(jia)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)实(shi)施运营(ying)中(zhong)出(chu)(chu)(chu)现的(de)(de)(de)(de)问题提(ti)出(chu)(chu)(chu)改进意见,从而达到(dao)(dao)提(ti)高(gao)投(tou)资(zi)效益(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)。建(jian)设项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)后评(ping)价(jia)可分为(wei)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)跟踪评(ping)价(jia)、项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)实(shi)施效果评(ping)价(jia)、项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)影(ying)响(xiang)评(ping)价(jia)三种(zhong)。项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)后评(ping)价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主要内(nei)容包(bao)括(kuo)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)质量评(ping)价(jia)和(he)(he)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)经(jing)济效益(yi)评(ping)价(jia)两方(fang)面。首(shou)先批(pi)准的(de)(de)(de)(de)概算(suan)是(shi)考核建(jian)设工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)造价(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)依据,再分析时,可先对(dui)比整个项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)总(zong)(zong)概算(suan),然后将建(jian)筑(zhu)安装工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)费、设备工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)器具(ju)费和(he)(he)其他工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)费用逐一与竣(jun)(jun)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)决(jue)算(suan)表中(zhong)所(suo)提(ti)出(chu)(chu)(chu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)实(shi)际数(shu)据和(he)(he)相关资(zi)料及批(pi)准的(de)(de)(de)(de)概算(suan)、预算(suan)指标、实(shi)际的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)造价(jia)进行(xing)对(dui)比分析,以确定竣(jun)(jun)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)总(zong)(zong)造价(jia)是(shi)否(fou)(fou)超支(zhi),并(bing)进行(xing)对(dui)比分析,总(zong)(zong)结经(jing)验(yan),找出(chu)(chu)(chu)节约和(he)(he)超支(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)内(nei)容与原因,并(bing)提(ti)出(chu)(chu)(chu)改进措施。建(jian)设项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)后评(ping)价(jia)作为(wei)项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)基本建(jian)设周期(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)最后一个阶段是(shi)基本建(jian)设工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)造价(jia)管理的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要组成部分,只(zhi)有做好(hao)建(jian)设项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)后评(ping)估(gu)才能(neng)做到(dao)(dao)心中(zhong)有数(shu),否(fou)(fou)则,建(jian)设项(xiang)(xiang)目(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)管理则是(shi)一笔糊涂账。

  5 结束语(yu)

  工(gong)程造(zao)价(jia)(jia)的(de)(de)(de)合理确定和有效控制(zhi)是(shi)(shi)贯穿(chuan)于建(jian)(jian)设(she)项目从决策到竣(jun)工(gong)投产的(de)(de)(de)整个(ge)(ge)过程,是(shi)(shi)一较为漫长、较为艰难的(de)(de)(de)过程。这就(jiu)要求建(jian)(jian)设(she)项目决策者、建(jian)(jian)设(she)项目实施者及监理工(gong)作(zuo)者和工(gong)程造(zao)价(jia)(jia)管理人(ren)员共同管理,认真贯彻(che)以(yi)设(she)计阶(jie)段(duan)为重点,其余阶(jie)段(duan)不放松的(de)(de)(de)全过程造(zao)价(jia)(jia)管理。尤其是(shi)(shi)造(zao)价(jia)(jia)管理工(gong)作(zuo)者必须熟练掌(zhang)握(wo)执业(ye)所需的(de)(de)(de)有关知识及技能,不断提(ti)高(gao)自身素质并养成良好的(de)(de)(de)职(zhi)业(ye)道(dao)德,在建(jian)(jian)设(she)项目实施的(de)(de)(de)各个(ge)(ge)阶(jie)段(duan)严格把好造(zao)价(jia)(jia)关以(yi)确保(bao)建(jian)(jian)设(she)项目投资充分(fen)发挥(hui)效益和工(gong)程建(jian)(jian)设(she)的(de)(de)(de)顺利(li)进(jin)行,这是(shi)(shi)每一个(ge)(ge)造(zao)价(jia)(jia)工(gong)作(zuo)者义不容辞的(de)(de)(de)义务。

  参(can)考文献:

  [1] 邓(deng)卫编着.建筑(zhu)工(gong)程经济[M].清华(hua)大(da)学出版社(she),2008.

  [2] 危(wei)佳.工程造价管理中的信息管理[J].福建建材. 2011,(05).

  [3] 韩(han)荣(rong).对工程(cheng)造价在(zai)建筑(zhu)工程(cheng)中的(de)初(chu)步认(ren)识(shi)[J].现代经济信息(xi). 2010,(12).

  [4] 宁国强.浅析工程造价管(guan)理与投资控制(zhi)[J].科技信息.2010,(S1).

  [5] 蔡益新.试(shi)论(lun)工程造价管理机制的完善与创新[J].山西建筑(zhu),2011,(02).

  [6] 危佳.工程造价管理(li)(li)中的(de)信息管理(li)(li)[J].福建(jian)建(jian)材(cai). 2011,(05).

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