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2018年北大中文核心期刊目录 电力工程师职称  水利施工  浙江大学学报

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通信工程论文发表卫星通信便携站天线对星策略

发布时(shi)间:2014-07-11 15:58:53更新时(shi)间:2014-07-11 15:59:27所属分类:通信论文浏览:1次 更多优质资料,可以联系在线客服索取!

【摘要】 卫星通信便携站具有通信链路建立迅速,开通快捷,操作简便等优点,在军、民领域得到广泛运用。本文阐述了卫星通信便携站天线对星原理及策略,利用该对星策略能够及时建立卫星通信链路,实现话音、数据和视频通信。 【关键词】 通信工程论文发表 ,选

  【摘(zhai)要(yao)】 卫星(xing)通(tong)信(xin)便(bian)(bian)携站(zhan)具有通(tong)信(xin)链路建立迅速,开通(tong)快捷,操作(zuo)简便(bian)(bian)等优点(dian),在军、民领域得(de)到广泛运用(yong)。本(ben)文(wen)阐(chan)述了卫星(xing)通(tong)信(xin)便(bian)(bian)携站(zhan)天线(xian)对星(xing)原理(li)及(ji)(ji)策略,利用(yong)该(gai)对星(xing)策略能够(gou)及(ji)(ji)时建立卫星(xing)通(tong)信(xin)链路,实现话音(yin)、数据和(he)视频通(tong)信(xin)。

  【关键词】 通信工程论文发表,选址,对星策略,便携站

  一、便携站天线(xian)对星原理

  1.1 选址

  便(bian)携(xie)站(zhan)天(tian)线(xian)要准确对星(xing),其(qi)选(xuan)址很(hen)关(guan)键。站(zhan)址应选(xuan)择在无遮挡、平(ping)坦开(kai)阔(kuo)的地(di)方(fang),在便(bian)携(xie)站(zhan)天(tian)线(xian)指(zhi)向(xiang)上不应有遮挡物(如电(dian)力(li)线(xian)、树、建筑物等);不应有微波接力(li)通(tong)(tong)信(xin)线(xian)路,否则(ze)卫星(xing)通(tong)(tong)信(xin)和微波接力(li)通(tong)(tong)信(xin)相互干(gan)扰。

  1.2 方(fang)位角、俯仰角和极化角

  便(bian)携(xie)站(zhan)天(tian)线(xian)(xian)(xian)要准(zhun)确(que)对星(xing)(xing)(xing),必需(xu)计算出便(bian)携(xie)站(zhan)天(tian)线(xian)(xian)(xian)对星(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)位(wei)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)、俯仰(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)和(he)极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)。(1)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)位(wei)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao):一般定义为(wei)(wei)从便(bian)携(xie)站(zhan)正(zheng)北(bei)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)向(xiang)起(0°),顺时(shi)针旋(xuan)转(zhuan)(zhuan)到(dao)天(tian)线(xian)(xian)(xian)指(zhi)向(xiang)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)向(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)夹(jia)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)。由于(yu)同步(bu)卫星(xing)(xing)(xing)轨道是(shi)处(chu)在赤(chi)道上空且是(shi)东西(xi)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)向(xiang)的(de)(de)(de),我(wo)国(guo)又处(chu)于(yu)北(bei)半球,便(bian)携(xie)站(zhan)面(mian)对的(de)(de)(de)同步(bu)轨道是(shi)在正(zheng)南方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)向(xiang),便(bian)携(xie)站(zhan)天(tian)线(xian)(xian)(xian)指(zhi)向(xiang)应(ying)是(shi)南方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)。(2)俯仰(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao):是(shi)指(zhi)天(tian)线(xian)(xian)(xian)指(zhi)向(xiang)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)向(xiang)与(yu)当(dang)(dang)地(di)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)面(mian)间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)。俯仰(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)为(wei)(wei)90°时(shi)与(yu)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)面(mian)垂(chui)直,俯仰(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)为(wei)(wei)0°时(shi)与(yu)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)面(mian)平(ping)行,天(tian)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)常工作俯仰(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)一般在 5°~90°之(zhi)间(jian)(jian)。当(dang)(dang)天(tian)线(xian)(xian)(xian)俯仰(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)低于(yu)5°时(shi),地(di)面(mian)噪声将大幅增加。(3)极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao):是(shi)指(zhi)卫星(xing)(xing)(xing)发出的(de)(de)(de)线(xian)(xian)(xian)极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)波到(dao)达接收地(di)后其(qi)相(xiang)应(ying)极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)向(xiang)与(yu)当(dang)(dang)地(di)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)面(mian)或(huo)铅垂(chui)线(xian)(xian)(xian)偏(pian)差的(de)(de)(de)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)度。电磁(ci)波的(de)(de)(de)电场矢量方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)向(xiang)可(ke)按旋(xuan)转(zhuan)(zhuan)或(huo)线(xian)(xian)(xian)性方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)式变化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua),对应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)两(liang)种电磁(ci)波分别被称(cheng)为(wei)(wei)圆极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)波和(he)线(xian)(xian)(xian)极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)波。线(xian)(xian)(xian)极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)包含相(xiang)互正(zheng)交的(de)(de)(de)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)和(he)垂(chui)直两(liang)种极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)式,常见的(de)(de)(de)卫星(xing)(xing)(xing)信号(hao)大多采用线(xian)(xian)(xian)极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)式传送,其(qi)电场矢量方(fang)(fang)(fang)(fang)向(xiang)与(yu)赤(chi)道面(mian)平(ping)行即(ji)为(wei)(wei)水(shui)(shui)平(ping)极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua),与(yu)赤(chi)道面(mian)垂(chui)直即(ji)为(wei)(wei)垂(chui)直极(ji)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)。

  1.3 对星原理

  根据(ju)站址的地理位(wei)置,由下列(lie)公式可以(yi)计算出便携站天线的方位(wei)角(jiao)、俯(fu)仰角(jiao)和极化(hua)角(jiao)。

  天线俯仰角:

  ■

  天线方位角:

  ■

  天线极化角:

  ■

  当(Φs-Φ0)>0时(shi),P取(qu)“-”,当(Φs-Φ0)<0时(shi)P取(qu)“+”。公(gong)式(shi)中:R ― 地(di)球半径6370公(gong)里(li),H ― 卫(wei)星(xing)高(gao)度(du)35786公(gong)里(li),φs― 便携站地(di)理(li)经度(du)(东经),θ― 便携站地(di)理(li)纬度(du)(北(bei)纬),φ0― 所对卫(wei)星(xing)的星(xing)下点经度(du)。

  便携站地(di)(di)理(li)坐标(biao)的经度φs、纬度θ,可利(li)用GPS或北(bei)斗设备获(huo)(huo)取,所对卫星的星下点经度φ0可查表获(huo)(huo)取。将以上三(san)个公式输入EXCEL软(ruan)件,通过软(ruan)件可以直接计(ji)算(suan)出来。利(li)用地(di)(di)磁(ci)罗(luo)盘得出天(tian)(tian)线的当前实(shi)际指向(xiang)(xiang)(方位角(jiao)和俯仰角(jiao)――实(shi)际值(zhi)(zhi)),比较理(li)论(lun)值(zhi)(zhi)与(yu)实(shi)际值(zhi)(zhi),若两者不等(deng),则(ze)调整天(tian)(tian)线位置(zhi),使其方向(xiang)(xiang)、俯仰角(jiao)与(yu)计(ji)算(suan)值(zhi)(zhi)相(xiang)等(deng),天(tian)(tian)线对准(zhun)卫星[3]。

  二、对星策略

  便(bian)携(xie)(xie)站天(tian)(tian)(tian)线(xian)(xian)对星(xing)(xing)(xing)分七步进行:(1)获取(qu)便(bian)携(xie)(xie)站架设(she)地(di)点的(de)经、纬(wei)(wei)度数(shu)据(ju):利用(yong)(yong) GPS或北斗相(xiang)关(guan)专业工具实(shi)测(ce)便(bian)携(xie)(xie)站架设(she)地(di)点的(de)经、纬(wei)(wei)度数(shu)据(ju),也可参考最(zui)近的(de)城市的(de)经、纬(wei)(wei)度数(shu)据(ju)。通(tong)常县(xian)级以上地(di)区的(de)经、纬(wei)(wei)度数(shu)据(ju)都可以通(tong)过(guo)查表(biao)获得(de)。(2)计(ji)算天(tian)(tian)(tian)线(xian)(xian)对星(xing)(xing)(xing)数(shu)据(ju):利用(yong)(yong)对星(xing)(xing)(xing)理(li)论(lun)公(gong)式计(ji)算出天(tian)(tian)(tian)线(xian)(xian)对准(zhun)目标(biao)(biao)卫星(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)方(fang)位(wei)(wei)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)A、俯(fu)(fu)(fu)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)E和极(ji)(ji)化(hua)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)P(理(li)论(lun)值(zhi)(zhi))。(3)调(diao)(diao)(diao)整(zheng)(zheng)极(ji)(ji)化(hua)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao):先调(diao)(diao)(diao)整(zheng)(zheng)极(ji)(ji)化(hua)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)P,转动(dong)馈源组件,粗调(diao)(diao)(diao)极(ji)(ji)化(hua)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)至理(li)论(lun)值(zhi)(zhi)附近。(4)调(diao)(diao)(diao)整(zheng)(zheng)俯(fu)(fu)(fu)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao):再调(diao)(diao)(diao)整(zheng)(zheng)俯(fu)(fu)(fu)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)E,利用(yong)(yong)地(di)质罗盘将卫星(xing)(xing)(xing)天(tian)(tian)(tian)线(xian)(xian)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)调(diao)(diao)(diao)整(zheng)(zheng)至理(li)论(lun)值(zhi)(zhi)。用(yong)(yong)地(di)磁罗盘大致确定俯(fu)(fu)(fu)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)度,俯(fu)(fu)(fu)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)调(diao)(diao)(diao)整(zheng)(zheng)时靠转动(dong)俯(fu)(fu)(fu)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)轴上的(de)支撑杆来(lai)完(wan)(wan)成(cheng),注意(yi)不能将俯(fu)(fu)(fu)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)丝杠(gang)旋出,否则可能损坏天(tian)(tian)(tian)线(xian)(xian)。(5)调(diao)(diao)(diao)整(zheng)(zheng)方(fang)位(wei)(wei)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao):最(zui)后调(diao)(diao)(diao)整(zheng)(zheng)方(fang)位(wei)(wei)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)A,先大范围缓慢转动(dong)便(bian)携(xie)(xie)站天(tian)(tian)(tian)线(xian)(xian)方(fang)位(wei)(wei)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao),在理(li)论(lun)值(zhi)(zhi)附近寻找目标(biao)(biao)卫星(xing)(xing)(xing)的(de)信(xin)(xin)(xin)标(biao)(biao)信(xin)(xin)(xin)号,注意(yi)进行全(quan)面仔(zi)细搜索,保证方(fang)位(wei)(wei)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)停(ting)留的(de)位(wei)(wei)置是(shi)信(xin)(xin)(xin)标(biao)(biao)信(xin)(xin)(xin)号的(de)最(zui)大值(zhi)(zhi),通(tong)过(guo)观察便(bian)携(xie)(xie)站的(de)信(xin)(xin)(xin)噪(zao)比EB/NO的(de)大小(xiao)来(lai)决定。(6)微调(diao)(diao)(diao):方(fang)位(wei)(wei)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)A和俯(fu)(fu)(fu)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)E微调(diao)(diao)(diao),反(fan)复交替(ti)调(diao)(diao)(diao)整(zheng)(zheng)方(fang)位(wei)(wei)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)A和俯(fu)(fu)(fu)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)E,使信(xin)(xin)(xin)标(biao)(biao)信(xin)(xin)(xin)号最(zui)大,即EB/NO达到最(zui)大值(zhi)(zhi)。(7)完(wan)(wan)成(cheng)对星(xing)(xing)(xing):锁定方(fang)位(wei)(wei)、俯(fu)(fu)(fu)仰(yang)(yang)(yang)(yang)丝杠(gang),转动(dong)极(ji)(ji)化(hua)角(jiao)(jiao)(jiao),使接收到的(de)信(xin)(xin)(xin)标(biao)(biao)信(xin)(xin)(xin)号电平值(zhi)(zhi)最(zui)大,从而完(wan)(wan)成(cheng)便(bian)携(xie)(xie)站天(tian)(tian)(tian)线(xian)(xian)对星(xing)(xing)(xing)。对星(xing)(xing)(xing)完(wan)(wan)毕还需进行通(tong)信(xin)(xin)(xin)联络论(lun)证,确保通(tong)信(xin)(xin)(xin)畅(chang)通(tong)。

  三(san)、小结

  本文阐述了卫星通(tong)信(xin)便携(xie)站(zhan)天线的(de)对星原理及策略,为(wei)应对便携(xie)站(zhan)应急开通(tong)(如:抢险救灾、突发事件(jian)),利用便携(xie)站(zhan)快速(su)进(jin)行各类卫星通(tong)信(xin)业务具有重大的(de)的(de)指导(dao)意(yi)义和实用价值。实现了在任何地点(dian)和环境条(tiao)件(jian)下,可以快速(su)建立卫星通(tong)信(xin)通(tong)道,将现场的(de)情况实时传回各级指挥中心(xin),进(jin)行话音、数据和视频(pin)通(tong)信(xin)。

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