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2018年北大中文核心期刊目录 电力工程师职称  水利施工  浙江大学学报

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水利助理工程师职称论文水利建设工程施工质量管理

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样板是一种标准化的模板,在建筑工程当中,样板起着指导性的关键作用。样板一定要展现工程的相关设计准求,达到相关的质量级别,将较为抽象化的设计准求及频繁的质量标准规划及有关流程转化为具体化的实物,促使所有的施工工作者,特别是工程施工操作人员能

  样(yang)(yang)板(ban)(ban)是(shi)一种(zhong)标准(zhun)化的(de)(de)(de)(de)模板(ban)(ban),在建筑工(gong)程当中,样(yang)(yang)板(ban)(ban)起着指(zhi)导性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)键(jian)作(zuo)用。样(yang)(yang)板(ban)(ban)一定要展(zhan)现(xian)工(gong)程的(de)(de)(de)(de)相关(guan)(guan)设(she)(she)计(ji)准(zhun)求(qiu),达到相关(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)质量级别,将(jiang)较为(wei)抽象(xiang)化的(de)(de)(de)(de)设(she)(she)计(ji)准(zhun)求(qiu)及频繁的(de)(de)(de)(de)质量标准(zhun)规划及有关(guan)(guan)流程转化为(wei)具体化的(de)(de)(de)(de)实(shi)物,促使(shi)所有的(de)(de)(de)(de)施(shi)工(gong)工(gong)作(zuo)者,特别是(shi)工(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)操(cao)作(zuo)人(ren)员(yuan)能够(gou)更为(wei)方(fang)便进行施(shi)工(gong),进行对(dui)比。为(wei)此,开展(zhan)行之(zhi)有效(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)样(yang)(yang)板(ban)(ban)管理是(shi)确(que)保及促使(shi)水利建设(she)(she)工(gong)程质量得以(yi)提(ti)升的(de)(de)(de)(de)强有力的(de)(de)(de)(de)途径,是(shi)工(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)现(xian)场质量管理的(de)(de)(de)(de)关(guan)(guan)键(jian)方(fang)面。

  摘(zhai) 要:只有开展(zhan)严格、具备先进科学技术(shu)前提下的(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li),才能够创建一项高质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)水(shui)利建设工(gong)(gong)(gong)程。通常来讲,水(shui)利工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)是(shi)经过工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)前期阶段(duan)的(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)及施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)阶段(duan)的(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)共同实现(xian)的(de)(de)。在施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)业(ye)当中(zhong),质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)是(shi)非常关键的(de)(de)构成单元(yuan)。为此,要想(xiang)创建高质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程,就一定(ding)要做好水(shui)利建设工(gong)(gong)(gong)程现(xian)场质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)。

  关键词:助理工程师职称论文,水利建设,工程施工,质量管理

  一、样板管理

  在工程(cheng)施(shi)工中(zhong)样(yang)板(ban)管理是较为细化的一项(xiang)工作,一般情况下(xia)须要做(zuo)好以下(xia)几个方面:

  1.展(zhan)现工程设计意图,满足该(gai)项工程的设计准求是(shi)以(yi)合格的样(yang)板为(wei)前提(ti)的;

  2.选择(ze)使用(yong)合(he)格(ge)的(de)材(cai)(cai)料。合(he)格(ge)的(de)建筑(zhu)材(cai)(cai)料死确保“样板(ban)”质量的(de)关键,在选择(ze)样板(ban)使用(yong)材(cai)(cai)料的(de)时候,不(bu)仅(jin)仅(jin)要关注样板(ban)材(cai)(cai)料的(de)合(he)格(ge)性(xing)(xing),同时须要对于(yu)样板(ban)的(de)使用(yong)规格(ge)、色泽及体型(xing)的(de)完整性(xing)(xing)等(deng)加(jia)以关注;

  3.挑选专(zhuan)业性强的(de)(de)(de)(de)技(ji)(ji)术(shu)工作人员,这是样板能(neng)否(fou)成功(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)性因素。通常状况下(xia),如果技(ji)(ji)术(shu)工作人员专(zhuan)业技(ji)(ji)能(neng)一般的(de)(de)(de)(de)话,那(nei)么,制作出的(de)(de)(de)(de)样板就会(hui)呈现出低水(shui)平的(de)(de)(de)(de)状态,将会(hui)没有(you)任何的(de)(de)(de)(de)推广(guang)价值。但如果选择使用高专(zhuan)业技(ji)(ji)能(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)技(ji)(ji)术(shu)工作人员,虽然其可以做高水(shui)准的(de)(de)(de)(de)样板,但限于推广(guang)上存在(zai)很大的(de)(de)(de)(de)难度(du),其设计(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)样板将没有(you)任何使用价值;

  4.在工(gong)(gong)程开工(gong)(gong)前(qian)期(qi)须要向(xiang)有(you)关操(cao)(cao)(cao)作(zuo)(zuo)人(ren)员进行技术(shu)、质(zhi)(zhi)量的交(jiao)底(di)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)。在工(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)之(zhi)前(qian)须要向(xiang)有(you)关操(cao)(cao)(cao)作(zuo)(zuo)人(ren)员进行质(zhi)(zhi)量、技术(shu)交(jiao)底(di)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo),这是做(zuo)好样(yang)板的关键方面,其中包含:样(yang)板名称(cheng)、部位、使用材(cai)料、技术(shu)、质(zhi)(zhi)量标准、具体操(cao)(cao)(cao)作(zuo)(zuo)步(bu)骤等,以促(cu)使操(cao)(cao)(cao)作(zuo)(zuo)者更好地(di)开展接下来的工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo);

  5.组织质(zhi)量(liang)专检人员(yuan)评定质(zhi)量(liang)等(deng)(deng)级(ji)。“样板”进(jin)(jin)行完成之后(hou),现场施工(gong)部(bu)门须(xu)要(yao)准时地组织相关(guan)(guan)工(gong)作(zuo)者(zhe)对于工(gong)程质(zhi)量(liang)开展有关(guan)(guan)评定,通常是在(zai)操作(zuo)者(zhe)自检合格之后(hou)交由(you)项目(mu)部(bu)、项经部(bu)、公司(si)质(zhi)量(liang)科(ke)等(deng)(deng)质(zhi)检人员(yuan)、项目(mu)经理或工(gong)程师(shi)鉴定,针对外饰面、油漆、装饰工(gong)程或甲(jia)方选定的(de)项目(mu),须(xu)要(yao)交由(you)设(she)计方来(lai)进(jin)(jin)行检定。

  二(er)、施工过(guo)程质(zhi)量监(jian)控管理

  (一)质量监(jian)控管(guan)理的作用

  在工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)施工(gong)作业(ye)当中(zhong)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)监控管理(li)是非常关键的(de)(de)一项工(gong)作,科学正确的(de)(de)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)监控能(neng)够促使工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)得(de)以保证,只有在强(qiang)有力(li)的(de)(de)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)监控下才(cai)(cai)能(neng)够避(bi)免工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)问题的(de)(de)形成(cheng),才(cai)(cai)能(neng)够达到预定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)标准,在一定(ding)(ding)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)度上促使工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)得(de)以提升(sheng),同(tong)时还可以有效(xiao)促使工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)成(cheng)本降低(di)。

  (二)质量(liang)监控管理的方(fang)法

  在(zai)工(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)过程(cheng)当中质量监控(kong)(kong)的(de)区(qu)域及(ji)重要(yao)方(fang)(fang)面(mian),在(zai)工(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)当中质量监控(kong)(kong)的(de)区(qu)域是非常(chang)广泛的(de),须(xu)要(yao)从设计图纸—原材料—项目(mu)施(shi)工(gong)三个方(fang)(fang)面(mian)进行有(you)效(xiao)监控(kong)(kong),只有(you)做(zuo)好施(shi)工(gong)过程(cheng)中的(de)质量监控(kong)(kong)工(gong)作才能够(gou)促使工(gong)程(cheng)质量处于(yu)良好的(de)监控(kong)(kong)状态之下,通常(chang)状况下质量建(jian)工(gong)区(qu)域及(ji)关键内容包(bao)括以下几个方(fang)(fang)面(mian)。

  1.在(zai)工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)质(zhi)量(liang)监(jian)控中(zhong),学习及会审设计(ji)图纸是(shi)(shi)首要(yao)(yao)工(gong)作。工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)的(de)(de)开(kai)展是(shi)(shi)须(xu)要(yao)(yao)根据施(shi)(shi)工(gong)图纸来进(jin)行(xing)的(de)(de),为(wei)此(ci),在(zai)工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)开(kai)工(gong)之前(qian)须(xu)要(yao)(yao)对(dui)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)图纸进(jin)行(xing)详细(xi)的(de)(de)查阅,把握好设计(ji)意图。然而,按照施(shi)(shi)工(gong)图纸施(shi)(shi)工(gong)是(shi)(shi)以在(zai)对(dui)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)图加以学习和会审的(de)(de)前(qian)提之下进(jin)行(xing)的(de)(de),为(wei)此(ci)需要(yao)(yao)学习与会审工(gong)作有效地综合在(zai)一(yi)起。在(zai)工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)中(zhong)为(wei)了确保工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)总体质(zhi)量(liang),须(xu)要(yao)(yao)对(dui)相关施(shi)(shi)工(gong)图设计(ji)加以科(ke)学的(de)(de)进(jin)一(yi)步(bu)优化,这(zhei)样才能(neng)够确保工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)质(zhi)量(liang)的(de)(de)达标(biao)。

  2.在质量监控工作中,对于原材料、半成(cheng)品(pin)、成(cheng)品(pin)的质量监控是非常重要(yao)的。所以须(xu)要(yao)对这(zhei)几方面进(jin)行行之(zhi)有效的监控。

  3.把握(wo)好分(fen)(fen)部(bu)、分(fen)(fen)项工程(cheng)按规(gui)定(ding)规(gui)程(cheng)施工是进行工程(cheng)质(zhi)量(liang)监控的(de)关键(jian)。分(fen)(fen)部(bu)、分(fen)(fen)项工程(cheng)质(zhi)量(liang)是工程(cheng)质(zhi)量(liang)的(de)根基,为(wei)此,质(zhi)量(liang)监控是一定(ding)要当(dang)作关键(jian)性工作来(lai)做好。

  4.在质(zhi)(zhi)量监控(kong)当中,重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)部(bu)分、薄弱环(huan)(huan)节的(de)(de)质(zhi)(zhi)量监控(kong)是重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)的(de)(de)方面。企业工程的(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)部(bu)分及薄弱环(huan)(huan)境主要(yao)(yao)是由(you)工程施工队伍(wu)及工程对(dui)(dui)象决定的(de)(de)。对(dui)(dui)工程重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)部(bu)分及薄弱环(huan)(huan)境的(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)(yao)掌(zhang)控(kong),只要(yao)(yao)监控(kong)办法正确、措施得当,通常都会取得良好的(de)(de)效果。

  三、工(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)中质(zhi)量监控办(ban)法(fa)及(ji)有效(xiao)途径

  在施工(gong)(gong)现场中质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)监控通常划分(fen)为:事前(qian)监控、施工(gong)(gong)过程监控及分(fen)项目(mu)监控三个方(fang)面(mian)。如果要对(dui)施工(gong)(gong)图纸、原(yuan)料进行监控,应当在工(gong)(gong)程开(kai)工(gong)(gong)之(zhi)前(qian)开(kai)展,唯有如此(ci)才能够成功(gong)地实现工(gong)(gong)程质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)的预前(qian)掌控。

  针(zhen)对工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施工(gong)(gong)(gong)过程中(zhong)经常出现(xian)的(de)质量问(wen)题(ti),最好能够着(zhe)重进行强力的(de)监控,争取能够及时发现(xian)问(wen)题(ti)的(de)存在,并将(jiang)其加以改正(zheng),将(jiang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程质量问(wen)题(ti)扼杀在摇篮状态之(zhi)下(xia)。针(zhen)对一些已(yi)经完工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)分类项目,但(dan)是(shi)距(ju)离工(gong)(gong)(gong)程整体交工(gong)(gong)(gong)存在一定时间(jian)的(de),须要在交工(gong)(gong)(gong)之(zhi)前的(de)这(zhei)一阶段中(zhong)进行有关监控,直至完全加工(gong)(gong)(gong)结束。

  伴(ban)随(sui)着先进科(ke)学技术的(de)不(bu)断进步与发(fa)展(zhan),质(zhi)量监(jian)控(kong)方式及途径开(kai)始得(de)到很(hen)大程度的(de)改善,开(kai)始逐渐转向科(ke)学系列(lie)化。目前我(wo)们须(xu)要(yao)很(hen)好地展(zhan)现出传统与当下技术有(you)效结(jie)合的(de)管理(li)方式,以(yi)此(ci)促使工程质(zhi)量得(de)到有(you)效的(de)监(jian)控(kong),最终达到预定的(de)监(jian)控(kong)目标。在(zai)现实(shi)的(de)监(jian)控(kong)工作(zuo)当中(zhong)须(xu)要(yao)做(zuo)好以(yi)下几方面的(de)工作(zuo):

  1.技术复(fu)核的重(zhong)要位置应该在于定位、引测标(biao)高、轴线、各层标(biao)高、成品、半成品的选择使用上(shang)。

  2.质量监(jian)(jian)控工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)中最为主要(yao)的途(tu)径是对隐(yin)蔽工(gong)(gong)(gong)程的验收。只要(yao)是隐(yin)蔽工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施工(gong)(gong)(gong)项目,就一(yi)定(ding)要(yao)开展全方(fang)位的质量监(jian)(jian)控,同时监(jian)(jian)控工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)的开展应(ying)当(dang)遵循(xun)相(xiang)关(guan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)规(gui)定(ding)来进(jin)行。

  3.材料(liao)试验是针对(dui)钢材、水(shui)泥、防水(shui)材料(liao)的检查(cha),等(deng)所有产品(pin)检查(cha)达到有关标准以后,才能够对(dui)其进行抽样(yang)检查(cha)。

  4.抽检随(sui)机检查(cha)工作的(de)开展(zhan)不会(hui)受到时间因素的(de)约(yue)束,极(ji)易查(cha)出问题的(de)存(cun)在,可以很(hen)好地做到:早发现(xian),早解决。抽检随(sui)机检查(cha)是监控(kong)质量的(de)有效方(fang)式。

  5.试水、通球检验将直接关(guan)乎(hu)使用性(xing)能,为此一(yi)定要严格(ge)的(de)遵循相关(guan)具体操作流程进行严格(ge)的(de)把关(guan)。

  6.设置(zhi)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)点。在工(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)项目中的(de)(de)(de)(de)很(hen)多方面(mian)是须要使用质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)点的(de)(de)(de)(de),譬如(ru):推广(guang)新技术、质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)难题、薄(bo)弱(ruo)环(huan)节等方面(mian)。对于(yu)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)掌控重要位置(zhi)、工(gong)程(cheng)薄(bo)弱(ruo)环(huan)节须要设置(zhi)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)点,对其(qi)进行事前掌控,这样(yang)就(jiu)能够(gou)获得事半功倍的(de)(de)(de)(de)成效(xiao)。对于(yu)一(yi)些外(wai)在表(biao)现出来的(de)(de)(de)(de)薄(bo)弱(ruo)环(huan)节,如(ru)果(guo)进行良好的(de)(de)(de)(de)事前掌控,设置(zhi)正确的(de)(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)点,在工(gong)程(cheng)中所存(cun)在的(de)(de)(de)(de)问题就(jiu)能够(gou)得到(dao)及时有(you)效(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)解决(jue)。为此,对于(yu)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)监控工(gong)作来讲,设置(zhi)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)点是一(yi)种行之有(you)效(xiao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)方法。

  四、质量验评管理

  第一,详细全面(mian)(mian)地进(jin)行(xing)相关(guan)方(fang)面(mian)(mian)的(de)检(jian)(jian)查(cha),是做好(hao)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)验评(ping)工作的(de)前提(ti)性(xing)工作。须要(yao)对工程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)施工当(dang)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)各个(ge)项目进(jin)行(xing)一一检(jian)(jian)查(cha),不能(neng)够只是做“面(mian)(mian)子工程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)”。同时,质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)验评(ping)管理工作一定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)要(yao)在大(da)范围内开展。在进(jin)行(xing)日常(chang)具体(ti)操作之前一定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)要(yao)进(jin)行(xing)事前检(jian)(jian)查(cha),质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)检(jian)(jian)查(cha)部(bu)(bu)门须要(yao)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)时进(jin)行(xing)检(jian)(jian)查(cha),对于不能(neng)够达到相关(guan)标准严格的(de)进(jin)行(xing)处理。譬如(ru)在检(jian)(jian)查(cha)室(shi)中(zhong)(zhong)抹灰的(de)过(guo)程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong),如(ru)果忽视(shi)了(le)对小间(jian)的(de)检(jian)(jian)查(cha),那么就会忽视(shi)了(le)小间(jian)管道(dao)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)阴阳角的(de)位置(zhi)。当(dang)对多(duo)个(ge)单元进(jin)行(xing)检(jian)(jian)查(cha)的(de)时候,如(ru)果仅(jin)(jin)仅(jin)(jin)对几间(jian)内墙(qiang)的(de)抹灰情况(kuang)进(jin)行(xing)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)检(jian)(jian)查(cha)的(de)话(hua),就会造成片面(mian)(mian)的(de)情况(kuang),导(dao)致评(ping)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)等级根据不充(chong)足。第二,分(fen)项工程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)评(ping)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)是工程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)评(ping)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)根基,为(wei)此,分(fen)项质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)不可以觉得仅(jin)(jin)仅(jin)(jin)是局部(bu)(bu),它将直接(jie)影(ying)响工程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)总体(ti)的(de)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)效果。为(wei)此,分(fen)项工程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)评(ping)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)是开展有效的(de)工程(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)评(ping)定(ding)(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)重要(yao)工作。

  五、结束语

  高质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)的(de)水利(li)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)建设一定是(shi)(shi)在严谨的(de)高科(ke)技质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)下创(chuang)建的(de)。通常来讲(jiang),水利(li)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)建设是(shi)(shi)经过工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)(gong)之前的(de)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)及施工(gong)(gong)过程(cheng)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)共(gong)同(tong)实现的(de),其中(zhong),对于施工(gong)(gong)现场的(de)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)是(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)中(zhong)的(de)关键性构成单元,为此,真正做好水利(li)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)现场质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)管(guan)(guan)理(li)是(shi)(shi)创(chuang)建高质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)水利(li)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)重要方(fang)面。

  参考文献:

  [1] 张迎鸿.水利建设工程施工质量管理的探讨[J].农业科技与信息,2008(18):53-55.

  [2] 陈辉冲.水(shui)利建设工(gong)程施工(gong)中质(zhi)量检(jian)测工(gong)作的重要(yao)性剖析(xi)[J].中国(guo)新技术新产品,2009(17):51.

  [3] 尚梦军,刘(liu)强,王传兵,等.规范水利工程建设(she)与管理的探讨[J].山东水利,2006(6):33,35.

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