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2018年北大中文核心期刊目录 电力工程师职称  水利施工  浙江大学学报

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给水工程师论文浅谈水利工程的施工技术

发布时间:2014-07-17 15:39:07更新(xin)时间:2014-07-17 15:39:49所属分类:水利论文浏览:1次 更多优质资料,可以联系在线客服索取!

水利工程的施工与其他工程一样,有着自身的特点。只有深入地了解水利工程的点,才能选择更为合适的施工方法,更好地组织施工,确保整个施工顺利完成。 摘要:水利工程的施工不仅关系到整个工程的质量和使用,而且关系到人民的生命安全和切身利益,因此,水利

  水利工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)与其(qi)他(ta)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)一样,有着自身的(de)特点。只有深入地了解水利工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)点,才能选择更为合适的(de)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)方法,更好地组(zu)织施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong),确保整(zheng)个施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)顺利完成。

  摘(zhai)要(yao):水利(li)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)不仅关(guan)系到(dao)整个工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的质量和(he)(he)使(shi)用(yong),而且(qie)关(guan)系到(dao)人民的生命安全(quan)和(he)(he)切(qie)身(shen)利(li)益,因此,水利(li)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)一(yi)直是国家(jia)以(yi)及(ji)技术人员关(guan)注的工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)。确(que)保工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的质量,最重要(yao)的是根据(ju)实际情况(kuang),采取合理的施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)方法。本文介绍了水利(li)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)特点及(ji)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)技术和(he)(he)管理措施(shi)(shi)。

  关键词:给水工程师论文,水利工程,施工,管理

  一、水利工程施工特点

  1、工(gong)作环(huan)(huan)境的(de)复杂(za)性。由于受(shou)地质,水文等环(huan)(huan)境、地形的(de)影响,水利工(gong)程中水工(gong)建筑物(wu)承受(shou)着相当大的(de)水压力。如果处理不好(hao),将会影响到(dao)建筑的(de)使(shi)用(yong)寿命。

  2、水利工(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)周(zhou)期(qi)长(zhang),施(shi)工(gong)任务重(zhong),时间紧,强度(du)大。尤(you)其在(zai)冬季施(shi)工(gong)时,混凝土浇筑受气(qi)温影响(xiang),对工(gong)程(cheng)的施(shi)工(gong)进度(du)和施(shi)工(gong)质量造成重(zhong)要的影响(xiang)。

  3、影响(xiang)周围地(di)质(zhi),气候的(de)变化。水利(li)工程的(de)施(shi)工容易对当地(di)周边的(de)环境造成一(yi)定的(de)破坏。例如,破坏水中生(sheng)(sheng)态系统,导致干(gan)旱、地(di)震(zhen)等自(zi)然(ran)灾(zai)害的(de)发生(sheng)(sheng)。因此(ci),更(geng)加要(yao)求了(le)解水利(li)施(shi)工的(de)地(di)形,尽量减少对地(di)质(zhi)、环境的(de)破坏。

  4、要应对气候的变化。水利工(gong)程(cheng)大(da)多是露天施(shi)工(gong),强风、暴雨都会对工(gong)程(cheng)质量产(chan)生一定的影响(xiang),因此,必须对特殊天气变化采取相应的措(cuo)施(shi)。

  5、施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)难(nan)度大(da),对(dui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)质量要(yao)求高。水(shui)(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)投资大(da),施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)周期长,投入了(le)相(xiang)当大(da)的(de)财力(li)物力(li),因(yin)此(ci),对(dui)各类水(shui)(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)都有(you)着相(xiang)当高的(de)质量要(yao)求。水(shui)(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)主(zhu)要(yao)和(he)水(shui)(shui)有(you)关,要(yao)避开(kai)水(shui)(shui)对(dui)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)造成的(de)影响,这就更(geng)大(da)大(da)加强了(le)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)难(nan)度。

  6、涉及面广。水利(li)工程的建设不(bu)仅涉及到(dao)很多的部(bu)门与单位,还(hai)要兼顾生(sheng)活用水,交通(tong)运输,防洪等不(bu)同方面的需求,这就加大了工程的复杂性。

  二、水(shui)利工程(cheng)的施工技术

  1、水利(li)工程施工的(de)(de)预(yu)(yu)应(ying)(ying)力(li)(li)(li)锚(mao)固施工。预(yu)(yu)应(ying)(ying)力(li)(li)(li)锚(mao)固技(ji)术是(shi)一(yi)项(xiang)潜(qian)力(li)(li)(li)很大的(de)(de)工程措(cuo)施,它的(de)(de)适应(ying)(ying)面较(jiao)广(guang),由(you)于(yu)预(yu)(yu)应(ying)(ying)力(li)(li)(li)锚(mao)固具有传递(di)拉应(ying)(ying)力(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)特殊优点,在国内(nei)外(wai)业(ye)界受(shou)到各部门的(de)(de)重视。预(yu)(yu)应(ying)(ying)力(li)(li)(li)锚(mao)固是(shi)预(yu)(yu)应(ying)(ying)力(li)(li)(li)岩锚(mao)与混(hun)凝土预(yu)(yu)应(ying)(ying)力(li)(li)(li)拉锚(mao)的(de)(de)总称(cheng),是(shi)在预(yu)(yu)应(ying)(ying)力(li)(li)(li)混(hun)凝土基础上发展起来的(de)(de)一(yi)项(xiang)锚(mao)固技(ji)术。

  2、大体积碾压(ya)(ya)混(hun)凝土(tu)的(de)技术在(zai)水利工(gong)程施(shi)(shi)工(gong)中的(de)应用(yong)。碾压(ya)(ya)混(hun)凝土(tu)是20多(duo)年(nian)兴起并得(de)到(dao)迅速发展的(de)一项筑坝新技术。这(zhei)种施(shi)(shi)工(gong)方法速度快,投资(zi)省,经济(ji)效益回报高。

  3、水(shui)(shui)利工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)冬季(ji)(ji)(ji)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)技术(shu)。水(shui)(shui)利工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)在冬季(ji)(ji)(ji)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)时(shi),施(shi)(shi)工(gong)技术(shu)尤为显(xian)得重要。混(hun)凝土(tu)(tu)是水(shui)(shui)利工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)在冬季(ji)(ji)(ji)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)中遇(yu)到的(de)(de)是大(da)的(de)(de)难题。混(hun)凝土(tu)(tu)浇筑受(shou)气温(wen)影响明(ming)显(xian),低温(wen)时(shi)受(shou)混(hun)凝土(tu)(tu)水(shui)(shui)化作(zuo)用,强度增长会(hui)受(shou)到阻碍,对工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)和工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)进度都会(hui)造(zao)成影响。在施(shi)(shi)工(gong)时(shi),要选抗冻(dong)性(xing)高的(de)(de)水(shui)(shui)泥,掺合(he)材(cai)料时(shi),要注意对混(hun)凝土(tu)(tu)抗冻(dong)、抗渗性(xing)的(de)(de)影响,严格按照(zhao)抗冻(dong)比例添加(jia)材(cai)料。所用骨料必(bi)须保持清(qing)洁,不能含有(you)冰雪及(ji)易冻(dong)的(de)(de)矿(kuang)物质(zhi)。

  4、遇到特殊(shu)天气(qi)变化,阴(yin)雪(xue)或冷空气(qi)入侵,要停止混凝土工(gong)程的作(zuo)业,待天气(qi)回(hui)升后(hou)再继续工(gong)程,不能为(wei)了赶进度(du),不顾(gu)自(zi)然(ran)条件的制约,从而对水利工(gong)程造成不可(ke)挽回(hui)的影响。

  三、水利工程施工建筑(zhu)管(guan)理和(he)技术混合(he)

  水(shui)(shui)利工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)有着较(jiao)大(da)的(de)建设(she)规模,长期的(de)施工(gong)(gong)周期,困难的(de)工(gong)(gong)作环境,复杂的(de)施工(gong)(gong)技(ji)术(shu),高(gao)要(yao)求的(de)质量,严格限制(zhi)(zhi)时间(jian)以及相对更(geng)多不安(an)全(quan)的(de)因(yin)素等等,技(ji)术(shu)管理(li)(li)是(shi)(shi)水(shui)(shui)利工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)顺利完工(gong)(gong),达到预期使用效果(guo)的(de)重要(yao)一步。管理(li)(li)和(he)严格的(de)组织技(ji)术(shu)活动,能够将科学技(ji)术(shu)转化(hua)为生产(chan)力,从而(er)使经济效率提高(gao)。对于(yu)操作和(he)单位管理(li)(li),要(yao)实行(xing)企(qi)(qi)业化(hua)管理(li)(li),一个是(shi)(shi)内部生产(chan)和(he)粗放管理(li)(li),激励机制(zhi)(zhi)缺乏;另一个是(shi)(shi)过(guo)于(yu)宽容的(de)传统就业制(zhi)(zhi)度,导致技(ji)术(shu)质量差的(de)中低教育水(shui)(shui)平的(de)企(qi)(qi)业人员,多数员工(gong)(gong)没有经历(li)过(guo)正式训(xun)练,对于(yu)基本知(zhi)识还是(shi)(shi)缺乏。

  对(dui)技术管(guan)理进(jin)行加强,首先要将(jiang)以下(xia)几点做好:

  1、建立健(jian)全技术(shu)的组织管(guan)理体(ti)系。

  时不(bu)时的(de)要进行一些技(ji)术经(jing)验(yan)的(de)交(jiao)流,总结(jie)工作,创新技(ji)术,使(shi)建议(yi)合理(li)化等(deng)相关活(huo)动(dong)。组织专(zhuan)业技(ji)术人员,分(fen)析现存的(de)工程难(nan)点(dian),并对其进行分(fen)类(lei)和技(ji)术研究。各项制度(du)要不(bu)断(duan)建立(li)和完善,技(ji)术管(guan)理(li),设(she)备,维护和事故或故障进行统计分(fen)析的(de)经(jing)营状况要不(bu)断(duan)加(jia)强,采(cai)取(qu)有(you)利(li)的(de)针对性(xing)的(de)措施,降低设(she)备故障率(lv)(lv),提高设(she)备的(de)使(shi)用效率(lv)(lv)。技(ji)术文(wen)件应授权于负责管(guan)理(li)的(de)专(zhuan)业人才,以确(que)保他们的(de)数(shu)(shu)据(ju)的(de)准确(que)性(xing),系统性(xing),应对其图表,原始(shi)数(shu)(shu)据(ju)单位(wei)等(deng)有(you)关文(wen)书分(fen)类(lei)的(de)数(shu)(shu)据(ju)进行认(ren)真收集和整理(li)。

  2、对其(qi)维(wei)护和(he)检修管理,技术监(jian)督进行加强(qiang)。

  将“质量(liang)第(di)一,安全第(di)一”作为前提(ti),结合实(shi)际潜力(li),进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)技术更新(xin),技术改(gai)造工作。改(gai)进(jin)(jin)设(she)备性(xing)能(neng)恢复设(she)备性(xing)能(neng)逐步过渡到维(wei)(wei)修周(zhou)期(qi),缩(suo)短(duan)维(wei)(wei)修周(zhou)期(qi)延长,设(she)备的(de)维(wei)(wei)护(hu),以(yi)确保质量(liang)。对(dui)于新(xin)技术应该努力(li)学习,掌握,熟悉新(xin)的(de)材(cai)料和(he)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)方法的(de)物理(li)和(he)化学性(xing)质,对(dui)传(chuan)统的(de)程序和(he)修复方法也要进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)改(gai)革,利用(yong)(yong)网(wang)络规(gui)划(hua)技术,开发维(wei)(wei)护(hu)网(wang)络图(tu),使(shi)之对(dui)提(ti)高产品质量(liang)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)(xing)维(wei)(wei)护(hu),既缩(suo)短(duan)了工期(qi),降低了耗材(cai),又减少了工力(li)。

  3、促生产,抓安全,实现以人为(wei)本的安全生产,使(shi)员工技(ji)能(neng)得以提高。

  作为始终把安(an)全(quan)(quan)放在第一(yi)位的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)程(cheng)和建(jian)(jian)设的(de)(de)(de)(de)水利(li)施工(gong)技术管理(li)(li),应该建(jian)(jian)立(li)并完善安(an)全(quan)(quan)生产组(zu)织的(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)度(du),采取(qu)一(yi)些有(you)效的(de)(de)(de)(de)措施进行(xing)管理(li)(li),用有(you)力的(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)度(du)来对人(ren)进行(xing)约束(shu)。进一(yi)步密切相关到每个(ge)员工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)切身利(li)益(yi),使工(gong)人(ren)执行(xing)程(cheng)序,提高了系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)意识。对工(gong)人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)要(yao)形成“抓好抓生产的(de)(de)(de)(de)综合治(zhi)理(li)(li)”。平时(shi)对于员工(gong)培训要(yao)不断加强,提高整体素质的(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下建(jian)(jian)设技术密集型的(de)(de)(de)(de)水利(li)工(gong)程(cheng)建(jian)(jian)设公司(si),要(yao)求高素质的(de)(de)(de)(de)人(ren)才。

  四、确保水(shui)利工程施(shi)(shi)工的措施(shi)(shi)

  1、建(jian)(jian)立(li)完善的安(an)全管(guan)理体系(xi),落实安(an)全生(sheng)产责任(ren)。工(gong)程(cheng)中标(biao)后(hou),相关人(ren)员要及时成立(li)安(an)全管(guan)理部(bu)门,建(jian)(jian)全安(an)全管(guan)理施工(gong)体系(xi),制定安(an)全生(sheng)产责任(ren)。要有(you)专职人(ren)员对现场进(jin)行(xing)(xing)监督检(jian)查(cha),发现安(an)全隐患要及时处理,确保工(gong)程(cheng)安(an)全进(jin)行(xing)(xing)。

  2、制定安全的施工方案,落实(shi)安全技术措施

  一个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)核心在于施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案(an),如(ru)果施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案(an)与实(shi)(shi)际情况不(bu)符,那么再精湛的(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)技术(shu)也(ye)不(bu)能完(wan)成一项伟大,实(shi)(shi)用的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)。由(you)于水利工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)特殊性,对施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案(an)的(de)制定(ding)更不(bu)能松懈(xie)。施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)单(dan)位在施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)前必(bi)须对施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)地理位置有详细(xi)的(de)了解,对存在危(wei)险性较大的(de)部分(fen)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)进(jin)行辨别(bie)。工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)项目必(bi)须认(ren)真落实(shi)(shi)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案(an),确保工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)安全。作业技术(shu)人(ren)员必(bi)须认(ren)真按照施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案(an)开展施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)。

  3、加强施(shi)工安全教育,提升(sheng)安全意识

  施(shi)工(gong)单位项目负责人及安(an)(an)全(quan)管(guan)理人员(yuan)要(yao)(yao)具备相应的(de)环境安(an)(an)全(quan)知识与管(guan)理能力。项目开(kai)展(zhan)前,进行中(zhong),都要(yao)(yao)对施(shi)工(gong)人员(yuan)不断宣传、灌(guan)输安(an)(an)全(quan)施(shi)工(gong)意识。加大(da)安(an)(an)全(quan)教育(yu)的(de)力度(du),采取(qu)各种手段,通过各种途(tu)径开(kai)展(zhan)施(shi)工(gong)安(an)(an)全(quan)的(de)宣传。确(que)保整(zheng)个工(gong)程(cheng)在安(an)(an)全(quan)的(de)前提下完成。

  4、加大安(an)(an)全费(fei)用(yong)(yong)的投入,确(que)保安(an)(an)全设(she)施的到位(wei)。施工(gong)单位(wei)要按照既定要求保证(zheng)工(gong)程安(an)(an)全费(fei)用(yong)(yong)的发(fa)放(fang),完善和改进(jin)项目安(an)(an)全生(sheng)产(chan)的条件(jian)。要定期(qi)开展安(an)(an)全生(sheng)产(chan)检(jian)查,安(an)(an)全费(fei)用(yong)(yong)应(ying)设(she)置安(an)(an)全专(zhuan)(zhuan)用(yong)(yong)账户,专(zhuan)(zhuan)款专(zhuan)(zhuan)用(yong)(yong),不(bu)得挪用(yong)(yong)他用(yong)(yong)。

  总(zong)结:水(shui)(shui)(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)是(shi)一个长期、复杂(za)的(de)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过(guo)(guo)程(cheng),施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过(guo)(guo)程(cheng)不仅(jin)需要(yao)有(you)专业(ye)的(de)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)技术保证整个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)完(wan)(wan)成,也(ye)需要(yao)安(an)全无误地完(wan)(wan)成整个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)。水(shui)(shui)(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)不仅(jin)关系(xi)(xi)到公民(min)的(de)切身利(li)益,也(ye)关系(xi)(xi)到国家(jia)水(shui)(shui)(shui)利(li)事业(ye)长期稳步地发(fa)展(zhan)。做为一名水(shui)(shui)(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作人(ren)员,不仅(jin)仅(jin)要(yao)提高自身的(de)水(shui)(shui)(shui)利(li)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)技术,更要(yao)有(you)安(an)全施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),管(guan)理施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)意识,为水(shui)(shui)(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)事业(ye)的(de)发(fa)展(zhan),做出应(ying)有(you)的(de)贡献。

  参与文献

  [1] 郭(guo)斌(bin), 孙自豪(hao). 浅(qian)谈水利水电基础(chu)工程施工技术(shu)[J].华(hua)章(zhang),2012,22.

  [2]谢德荣.水(shui)利水(shui)电(dian)工程地质特征浅析[J].长(zhang)江工程职业技术学(xue)院学(xue)报,2002.3

  [3]蒋(jiang)元驹.混(hun)凝(ning)土的砂(sha)石(shi)骨科[J].水利(li)技术,2001,12.

  [4]刘(liu)掁昌. 浅谈水利(li)工程施工技术(shu)[J].黑龙江(jiang)科技信(xin)息(xi),2012,12.

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