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2018年北大中文核心期刊目录 电力工程师职称  水利施工  浙江大学学报

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期刊论文发表谈水利工程施工质量措施

发布时间(jian):2014-07-09 15:43:44更新时间:2014-07-09 15:44:22所属分类:水利论文浏(liu)览:1次 更多优质资料,可以联系在线客服索取!

水利工程在工业、农业、生活、环境领域中发挥了巨大的作用,水利工程施工质量直接关系到能否达到发挥理想的工程效益的目的。目前,水利工程施工管理水平有一定提高,但存在的一些问题也不容忽视,对这些问题必须采取切实有效的措施,提高施工管理水平,以提

  水(shui)(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程在工(gong)(gong)(gong)业(ye)、农业(ye)、生活、环境领域中发挥了巨(ju)大的(de)(de)作用,水(shui)(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)质量直接关系到(dao)(dao)能否(fou)达到(dao)(dao)发挥理(li)想(xiang)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程效益的(de)(de)目的(de)(de)。目前,水(shui)(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)管理(li)水(shui)(shui)平有一(yi)定提高(gao),但存在的(de)(de)一(yi)些(xie)问题也不容忽视(shi),对这些(xie)问题必须采取切(qie)实有效的(de)(de)措施(shi),提高(gao)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)管理(li)水(shui)(shui)平,以(yi)提高(gao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程建(jian)设质量。

  【摘 要(yao)】 随(sui)着我国(guo)经济的高速发(fa)展,水(shui)利工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)建(jian)设(she)取得了一定(ding)的成绩(ji),但(dan)部分工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)建(jian)设(she)中存在质量问题也不容忽(hu)视。要(yao)保障水(shui)利工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)设(she)施能够正(zheng)常(chang)发(fa)挥(hui)功能,就必须采(cai)取有效措(cuo)施,切(qie)实加强水(shui)利工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)建(jian)设(she)的质量。

  【关键词】期刊论文发表,水利工程,施工质量,加强措施

  1 质量于水利工程建设而(er)言(yan)是重中之(zhi)重

  随着科(ke)学技术的(de)(de)(de)发展和市场竞争(zheng)的(de)(de)(de)需(xu)要,质量(liang)管理越来(lai)越被人们重视。在水(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)建设(she)中,工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)质量(liang)始终是(shi)(shi)水(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)建设(she)的(de)(de)(de)关键(jian),任(ren)何一个环节,任(ren)何一个部(bu)位出现问(wen)题(ti),都会给整体工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)带来(lai)严(yan)重的(de)(de)(de)后果,直接影(ying)响到(dao)水(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)使(shi)用效益,甚至造成巨(ju)大的(de)(de)(de)经(jing)济损失。因(yin)此,可以肯定的(de)(de)(de)说,质量(liang)管理是(shi)(shi)确保水(shui)利(li)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)质量(liang)的(de)(de)(de)生命。

  工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)质量的(de)优劣,直接影响工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)建(jian)设的(de)速度(du)。劣质工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)不仅增加了维(wei)修(xiu)和(he)改(gai)造的(de)费用(yong)、缩(suo)短(duan)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)使用(yong)寿命,还会(hui)给社(she)会(hui)带(dai)来极坏(huai)的(de)影响。反(fan)之,优良的(de)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)质量能给各方带(dai)来丰厚的(de)经济效(xiao)益(yi)和(he)社(she)会(hui)效(xiao)益(yi),建(jian)设项目也能早(zao)日(ri)投(tou)入运营(ying),早(zao)日(ri)见效(xiao)。

  2 要提(ti)高(gao)水利工程施(shi)工质量(liang)(liang),首先(xian)应全面加(jia)强和提(ti)高(gao)质量(liang)(liang)管理意(yi)识

  提高施(shi)工(gong)(gong)质量(liang)管(guan)(guan)理意(yi)识(shi),是安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)的前提和(he)基(ji)础。要在企业施(shi)工(gong)(gong)内部加强安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)意(yi)识(shi)教育,全(quan)(quan)面提高各个(ge)岗位工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)人的安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)意(yi)识(shi)和(he)责(ze)任(ren)意(yi)识(shi),牢固树立“质量(liang)第一、安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)生产”的思想。施(shi)工(gong)(gong)单(dan)位、质检人员(yuan)、监理人员(yuan)及甲方代(dai)表要相互配合、协调合作(zuo),全(quan)(quan)面加强质量(liang)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)监管(guan)(guan)和(he)检测工(gong)(gong)作(zuo),重(zhong)视细节,不留死角。

  3 要提高水(shui)利工程施工质量,还(hai)应严(yan)格健全施工组织(zhi)机(ji)构

  没(mei)有责(ze)任意(yi)识的(de)企业(ye)(ye)是不合(he)格的(de)企业(ye)(ye),水(shui)(shui)利施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)关系(xi)到人(ren)民(min)的(de)生(sheng)命财产安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan),需要施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)队伍具(ju)有强烈的(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)意(yi)识和(he)(he)使命感,自(zi)觉约束自(zi)身行(xing)(xing)为,提高自(zi)己的(de)技术水(shui)(shui)平(ping),保(bao)证水(shui)(shui)利施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)的(de)顺利安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)地(di)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)。从(cong)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)管理人(ren)员来讲(jiang),要优选施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)人(ren)员,定期进(jin)行(xing)(xing)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)教(jiao)育(yu)和(he)(he)职业(ye)(ye)技能培训,不断提高他(ta)们的(de)职业(ye)(ye)道(dao)德修养和(he)(he)职业(ye)(ye)技能水(shui)(shui)平(ping);从(cong)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)操作(zuo)人(ren)员来讲(jiang),要严格要求(qiu)自(zi)己,保(bao)持“细致深入、一丝(si)不苟”的(de)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)作(zuo)风和(he)(he)职业(ye)(ye)态度,严格执行(xing)(xing)质量标准和(he)(he)操作(zuo)规程,保(bao)证施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)质量和(he)(he)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)。

  4 要提高(gao)水利工程施工质量,还须建(jian)立(li)明确(que)的质量保证体系(xi)

  实(shi)行全(quan)面(mian)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li),提(ti)高质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)水(shui)(shui)平管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)因素在(zai)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)控(kong)制中(zhong)具有举足轻重的(de)(de)(de)作(zuo)用。建筑工程(cheng)项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)应(ying)建立严密(mi)的(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)保(bao)(bao)证体(ti)系和(he)(he)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)责任(ren)制,明确(que)各自(zi)的(de)(de)(de)责任(ren)。施(shi)(shi)(shi)工过程(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)各个环节都要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)严格控(kong)制,各分部(bu)、分项(xiang)工程(cheng)均要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)全(quan)面(mian)实(shi)施(shi)(shi)(shi)到(dao)位管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)。在(zai)实(shi)施(shi)(shi)(shi)全(quan)过程(cheng)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)中(zhong),首先要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)根据施(shi)(shi)(shi)工队伍的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)身情况和(he)(he)工程(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)特点及质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)通病,确(que)定(ding)(ding)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)目(mu)(mu)标和(he)(he)攻关(guan)内容(rong)。再结合(he)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)目(mu)(mu)标和(he)(he)攻关(guan)内容(rong)编写施(shi)(shi)(shi)工组织(zhi)设计,制定(ding)(ding)具体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)保(bao)(bao)证计划和(he)(he)攻关(guan)措(cuo)(cuo)施(shi)(shi)(shi),明确(que)实(shi)施(shi)(shi)(shi)内容(rong)、方法和(he)(he)效果。在(zai)实(shi)施(shi)(shi)(shi)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)计划和(he)(he)攻关(guan)措(cuo)(cuo)施(shi)(shi)(shi)中(zhong)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)加强质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)检查,其结果要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)定(ding)(ding)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)分析、得(de)出(chu)(chu)结论。对取得(de)的(de)(de)(de)经验(yan)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)加以总结,并转(zhuan)化为(wei)今后(hou)保(bao)(bao)证质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)(de)标准和(he)(he)制度。形成新(xin)的(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)(zhi)保(bao)(bao)措(cuo)(cuo)施(shi)(shi)(shi)。对暴露出(chu)(chu)的(de)(de)(de)问题,则要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)作(zuo)为(wei)以后(hou)质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)预控(kong)目(mu)(mu)标。质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)控(kong)制目(mu)(mu)标是质(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)(liang)(liang)(liang)控(kong)制预期应(ying)达到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)程(cheng)度和(he)(he)水(shui)(shui)平。

  5 改(gai)进和(he)提高施工技术(shu)水(shui)平是(shi)提升水(shui)利工程(cheng)施工质量的重要(yao)保障(zhang)

  科学技(ji)术是(shi)第一生产(chan)力,是(shi)施工(gong)(gong)质量安全的(de)(de)重要(yao)保(bao)(bao)证(zheng)。为了(le)保(bao)(bao)证(zheng)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)质量,应重视新技(ji)术、新工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)的(de)(de)先进性和适用性。在施工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)全过程(cheng)(cheng)中,要(yao)建立符合(he)技(ji)术要(yao)求的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)流程(cheng)(cheng)、质量标准、操(cao)作规程(cheng)(cheng),并(bing)建立严格的(de)(de)考核制(zhi)(zhi)度,不(bu)断改进和提高施工(gong)(gong)技(ji)术和工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)水(shui)平,以(yi)确保(bao)(bao)工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)质量。技(ji)术管理(li)包括技(ji)术责任制(zhi)(zhi)、施工(gong)(gong)日(ri)记、图纸会审、技(ji)术交底、技(ji)术复核、材料检验、技(ji)术档(dang)案、工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)验收等制(zhi)(zhi)度。在生产(chan)实践(jian)中则应做好以(yi)下(xia)几(ji)方面的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)作:

  5.1 技(ji)术责任制

  要(yao)求每个(ge)工程(cheng)技术人员(yuan)明确(que)自己(ji)的职(zhi)责(ze)和(he)权限,分工明确(que)、各司其职(zhi),便于做好各自分工的技术工作。

  5.2 施(shi)工(gong)日(ri)记

  在施(shi)工(gong)(gong)过程(cheng)中,施(shi)工(gong)(gong)技术负责人必须认真做好(hao)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)日记,把施(shi)工(gong)(gong)中每天每项工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)情况、出现的问题及处理方法与结果详细记录、完(wan)好(hao)保存,作(zuo)(zuo)为竣(jun)工(gong)(gong)验收和质(zhi)量评定(ding)的依据(ju)。

  5.3 图纸会审(shen)

  做(zuo)好此项工(gong)作,对于减少(shao)施工(gong)中的(de)差(cha)(cha)错、保证和提前完成施工(gong)任务、确保施工(gong)质量至关重(zhong)要,一旦发现问题,就可及时纠正,并详细记录、存入技术档案(an),达到消除差(cha)(cha)错的(de)目的(de)。

  5.4 技术交底

  使(shi)参(can)与施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)任(ren)务的专业技(ji)术(shu)人(ren)员和工(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)全面的了解所负担工(gong)(gong)(gong)程任(ren)务的特点、技(ji)术(shu)要求、施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺等,做到心中有数。

  5.5 技术复核

  在施工全过程(cheng)中,对每项技术工作的实(shi)施,要(yao)有(you)专人(ren)进行复核,防止偏(pian)差(cha),纠(jiu)正错误,避免(mian)人(ren)为工程(cheng)质量(liang)事故。

  5.6 材料检验(yan)

  施工工地所用的(de)各类材(cai)料,如钢(gang)材(cai)、水泥、粗沙、石子等都应抽样检(jian)查,符(fu)合设计要求(qiu)方可使(shi)用,以确保施工质(zhi)量。

  6 要提升水(shui)利工程施工质量,还应进一步加强现场的高度与管理

  6.1 合理的现场调(diao)度

  水利工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)建设是(shi)(shi)一(yi)个(ge)涉及(ji)到各方各面的(de)(de)一(yi)个(ge)整体工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng),也是(shi)(shi)一(yi)个(ge)需要专(zhuan)业施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)队伍共同努(nu)力(li)完(wan)成的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)。在(zai)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过程(cheng)中,可能会出(chu)现(xian)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)供应(ying)(ying)不(bu)足(zu)、机械出(chu)现(xian)故(gu)障等(deng)突发状况(kuang),这些都需要在(zai)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)之前(qian)(qian)好(hao)好(hao)的(de)(de)做(zuo)(zuo)好(hao)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)准备(bei)、机械保(bao)养维修等(deng)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序。作为(wei)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)(de)管(guan)理人(ren)员(yuan),应(ying)(ying)当随(sui)时到施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)现(xian)场(chang)对物资、人(ren)员(yuan)、资金、工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)期等(deng)方面做(zuo)(zuo)好(hao)统计,及(ji)时的(de)(de)回报现(xian)场(chang)情况(kuang),协调好(hao)上下(xia)级相互之间的(de)(de)关系(xi),保(bao)证(zheng)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)质(zhi)(zhi)量能够(gou)得(de)到有效的(de)(de)控制,能够(gou)在(zai)保(bao)证(zheng)质(zhi)(zhi)量的(de)(de)情况(kuang)下(xia),降低使用成本。所(suo)以现(xian)场(chang)的(de)(de)调度(du)是(shi)(shi)一(yi)个(ge)不(bu)可忽视的(de)(de)方面,合理的(de)(de)调度(du)是(shi)(shi)保(bao)证(zheng)施工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)质(zhi)(zhi)量的(de)(de)前(qian)(qian)提之一(yi)。

  6.2 做好质量控制,需要完善现(xian)场管(guan)理制度

  在(zai)(zai)水利工程施工建设之前,就应(ying)(ying)当针对上(shang)级的(de)规章(zhang)制(zhi)度以及以前水利建设的(de)经验总结来制(zhi)定出(chu)一(yi)套详细的(de)管理制(zhi)度,以确(que)保工程质量能够得到(dao)有效的(de)控(kong)制(zhi)。在(zai)(zai)规章(zhang)制(zhi)度里面,应(ying)(ying)尽量将各个问题(ti)细化,让每一(yi)位施工人员明确(que)自己什么需(xu)要(yao)做(zuo),什么不需(xu)要(yao)做(zuo),避免含(han)糊不清的(de)语(yu)句出(chu)现。在(zai)(zai)管理上(shang),做(zuo)到(dao)公平、公正,有功必奖,有错必罚(fa),不能因人而异(yi)。

  7 结(jie)语

  在(zai)水(shui)利工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)建(jian)设过程(cheng)(cheng)中,切实加强施工(gong)质量,能(neng)够(gou)使(shi)水(shui)利设施发挥(hui)在(zai)经(jing)济建(jian)设、防洪减灾(zai)等工(gong)作中发挥(hui)更大的社会效益(yi)(yi)、经(jing)济效益(yi)(yi)和(he)环境(jing)效益(yi)(yi),必须(xu)引起所有参与建(jian)设人员的高度重(zhong)视(shi)。

  参(can)考文献:

  [1]李传(chuan)忠.《浅议水利工程质量管理》[J].中国水运,2011(8).

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