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2018年北大中文核心期刊目录 电力工程师职称  水利施工  浙江大学学报

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建筑论文发表最好的网站推荐论文范文

发布(bu)时间:2014-07-16 14:51:25更新时间:2014-07-16 14:51:59所属分类:建筑设计论文浏览(lan):1次(ci) 更多优质资料,可以联系在线客服索取!

一些建筑单位不按法定法律程序办事, 规避政府监管,如有的建设单位不依法进行图审、不依法招标和报建、不办理或不及时办理质量安全监督和施工许可手续,将工程发包给不具备相应资质的企业甚至个人,按规定应监理的工程不实行监理等。 摘 要:随着我国国民经济

  一些建筑单(dan)位不(bu)(bu)按法定(ding)(ding)法律(lv)程序办(ban)(ban)事, 规避(bi)政府(fu)监管,如有(you)的建设(she)单(dan)位不(bu)(bu)依(yi)法进行图审(shen)、不(bu)(bu)依(yi)法招(zhao)标和(he)报建、不(bu)(bu)办(ban)(ban)理或不(bu)(bu)及时办(ban)(ban)理质量安全(quan)监督(du)和(he)施工许可手(shou)续,将工程发(fa)包(bao)给不(bu)(bu)具备(bei)相应资(zi)质的企(qi)业甚至个人(ren),按规定(ding)(ding)应监理的工程不(bu)(bu)实行监理等。

  摘 要:随(sui)着我(wo)国国民经济持(chi)续快速增(zeng)长,基建(jian)投(tou)资(zi)项目不断(duan)增(zeng)加,建(jian)筑(zhu)施(shi)工(gong)企业(ye)也随(sui)之迅(xun)速发展。建(jian)筑(zhu)行(xing)业(ye)由于它(ta)特有的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)性质(zhi),安(an)(an)全(quan)生产的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)事(shi)故频发,因此,要确(que)保建(jian)筑(zhu)工(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan),就必须提高管理(li)(li)、操(cao)作人(ren)员(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)意识和(he)素(su)质(zhi),建(jian)立完善的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)管理(li)(li)体系,加强施(shi)工(gong)过程的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)管理(li)(li)。本(ben)文分析了影响建(jian)筑(zhu)施(shi)工(gong)安(an)(an)全(quan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)因素(su),提出如何加强建(jian)筑(zhu)施(shi)工(gong)安(an)(an)全(quan)管理(li)(li)建(jian)设(she)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)若干(gan)建(jian)议。

  关键词:论文发表最好的网站,建筑施工,安全措施,安全管理

  一(yi)、建筑工程施(shi)工安全事(shi)故发生的原(yuan)因

  当前,我国建筑工(gong)程施(shi)工(gong)过程中(zhong)安全事故时有发生,其(qi)主要原因是有以下(xia)几方面的原因。

  1.法律(lv)意(yi)识淡薄(bo)

  作为领导(dao)没有及时(shi)加强(qiang)安(an)(an)全意识(shi)教育,加大安(an)(an)全方(fang)面的(de)投入,建立(li)完(wan)善的(de)安(an)(an)全管(guan)理体系。作为操(cao)作人员(yuan)也(ye)没有树(shu)立(li)较强(qiang)的(de)安(an)(an)全意识(shi)和(he)较好的(de)安(an)(an)全操(cao)作水平,不能自觉抵制(zhi)违章作业及冒(mao)险施工(gong)。

  2.安全监管不到位

  目前(qian)我国经济增(zeng)加较快(kuai),建筑行业也随(sui)之快(kuai)速发展,目前(qian)建筑市场较为混(hun)乱,时(shi)常出现(xian)一(yi)个(ge)项目有几个(ge)分包(bao)商,这(zhei)些分包(bao)商的(de)(de)社会信誉,施工(gong)技术和管(guan)理(li)(li)水平普遍较差,在工(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施工(gong)过程(cheng)(cheng)下,偷工(gong)减料,安(an)全(quan)(quan)意(yi)识淡薄,根本(ben)谈不(bu)上对安(an)全(quan)(quan)进行统(tong)一(yi)管(guan)理(li)(li)。另(ling)一(yi)方(fang)面,建筑安(an)全(quan)(quan)的(de)(de)法律法规不(bu)健全(quan)(quan),政府监管(guan)效率低下,许多地(di)方(fang)政府领导(dao)出于对自身政绩(ji)的(de)(de)考虑,对于安(an)全(quan)(quan)事(shi)(shi)故(gu)采取大(da)事(shi)(shi)化小(xiao),小(xiao)事(shi)(shi)化了(le)的(de)(de)做(zuo)法,使安(an)全(quan)(quan)事(shi)(shi)故(gu)记(ji)录(lu)与管(guan)理(li)(li)缺(que)乏权威性(xing)和真实性(xing), 建筑安(an)全(quan)(quan)事(shi)(shi)故(gu)瞒报(bao)(bao)、漏报(bao)(bao), 甚至不(bu)报(bao)(bao)现(xian)象严重(zhong),安(an)全(quan)(quan)检(jian)查中的(de)(de)违纪(ji)违法问题不(bu)能得(de)到及时(shi)严厉的(de)(de)惩(cheng)处,安(an)全(quan)(quan)责任事(shi)(shi)故(gu)的(de)(de)法定损失赔(pei)偿标准(zhun)偏低, “私了(le)”现(xian)象严重(zhong)。

  3.施(shi)工(gong)企业认识不足

  建(jian)筑施(shi)工企业对安(an)全监(jian)理(li)的(de)认识不足, 没有(you)健全的(de)安(an)全保证(zheng)体系。专职(zhi)安(an)全员不按规定配备(bei), 数量少。不执行强制性标准, 不执行监(jian)理(li)人员的(de)指令(ling),一线操作人员又缺乏基本的(de)安(an)全防(fang)护知识, 自我防(fang)护意(yi)识很差,不能及(ji)时有(you)效的(de)采取果断措施(shi)予(yu)以(yi)整改和消除。

  4.施工人员(yuan)素质低

  目前我(wo)国建筑行业从业人(ren)员(yuan)60%以上都是(shi)农(nong)民(min)(min),这(zhei)些农(nong)民(min)(min)从农(nong)村进入城市,从农(nong)民(min)(min)转为工人(ren),他(ta)们的(de)知识结构、法律意(yi)识还(hai)不(bu)能适(shi)应(ying)建筑行业的(de)特殊工作条件和环境,他(ta)们普遍(bian)未经过培训和进行相关的(de)教育,缺乏应(ying)有的(de)安全知识和安全防(fang)范意(yi)识,从而导致自(zi)身及他(ta)人(ren)安全事(shi)故的(de)发生。

  5.监(jian)理市场(chang)混乱

  部分监理(li)人(ren)员(yuan)素质低,以前监理(li)工(gong)程师(shi)执(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)资格报(bao)考(kao)条件较低,只要(yao)求工(gong)程师(shi)职称年限满3年就(jiu)可报(bao)考(kao),不(bu)(bu)要(yao)求学(xue)历。另外,监理(li)市场混乱,一(yi)些(xie)具(ju)有注册监理(li)工(gong)程师(shi)执(zhi)(zhi)业(ye)资格的人(ren)员(yuan)不(bu)(bu)上岗(gang),挂(gua)证挂(gua)牌现象普遍。而在(zai)岗(gang)的监理(li)工(gong)程师(shi)一(yi)人(ren)管理(li)多个项(xiang)目(mu)(mu),担(dan)任多个项(xiang)目(mu)(mu)总监,没有起到(dao)工(gong)程监理(li)的作用。

  二(er)、建筑工(gong)程施工(gong)安全事故防范措施

  1.建立(li)健全法律(lv)法规(gui)

  随(sui)着(zhe)建(jian)筑施(shi)工生(sheng)产的(de)发展,建(jian)筑安全(quan)方面(mian)的(de)法律(lv)法规也暴(bao)露出了(le)不(bu)(bu)少(shao)问题和(he)缺陷。虽然全(quan)国人大常委会(hui)公布实(shi)施(shi)了(le)《中华人民共和(he)国建(jian)筑法》,但这些(xie)法律(lv)法规在不(bu)(bu)同(tong)方面(mian)都存在不(bu)(bu)完(wan)备的(de)问题:法律(lv)法规的(de)可操作(zuo)性不(bu)(bu)强,法律(lv)法规体系不(bu)(bu)够健全(quan),法律(lv)法规还存在重(zhong)(zhong)复和(he)交(jiao)叉等(deng);实(shi)际管理中过分注重(zhong)(zhong)条(tiao)款的(de)执(zhi)行,忽视具体情况和(he)实(shi)际问题的(de)研究(jiu)。随(sui)着(zhe)经济的(de)发展,相应的(de)法律(lv)规程也应与时俱进(jin)。

  2.建立健全安(an)全组织结构

  确(que)定安(an)(an)全(quan)生产(chan)目标,明(ming)确(que)参与各(ge)方对(dui)安(an)(an)全(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)的(de)具体(ti)分工,安(an)(an)全(quan)岗位责任与经济利益挂(gua)钩(gou),根据项目的(de)性(xing)质(zhi)规模不同(tong),采用不同(tong)的(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li)模式。对(dui)大型项目必须安(an)(an)排专门(men)的(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)总(zong)负(fu)(fu)(fu)责人,并配以合理(li)(li)的(de)班子共同(tong)进(jin)行安(an)(an)全(quan)管(guan)理(li)(li),建立(li)安(an)(an)全(quan)生产(chan)管(guan)理(li)(li)的(de)资(zi)料档案。实行单位领导对(dui)施工现场(chang)负(fu)(fu)(fu)责,专职安(an)(an)全(quan)员对(dui)部位负(fu)(fu)(fu)责,班组长和施工技术员对(dui)各(ge)自的(de)施工区域负(fu)(fu)(fu)责,操作(zuo)者对(dui)自己的(de)工作(zuo)范围负(fu)(fu)(fu)责的(de)“四负(fu)(fu)(fu)责”制度(du)。

  3.加(jia)强安(an)全教育,搞好员工培(pei)训

  定(ding)期(qi)对(dui)现场施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)技(ji)术、安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)知(zhi)识(shi)等方面知(zhi)识(shi)的(de)教(jiao)育和(he)培(pei)训,提(ti)(ti)高(gao)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)的(de)素质,对(dui)危险(xian)作(zuo)业(ye)过程(cheng)严(yan)格(ge)按作(zuo)业(ye)指导说明(ming)组织施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)需经(jing)培(pei)训并(bing)(bing)取得资(zi)格(ge)。如起(qi)重工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)、电焊工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)、电工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)等特(te)殊工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)种(zhong)必(bi)须(xu)持(chi)证上岗(gang),杜(du)绝无证作(zuo)业(ye)。一般(ban)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)种(zhong)也要求施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)熟悉环境(jing),做(zuo)好自身(shen)的(de)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)防(fang)范,坚(jian)决杜(du)绝施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过程(cheng)中(zhong)由于施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)违章操(cao)(cao)作(zuo)而(er)导致的(de)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)事故。对(dui)基坑工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)、模(mo)板工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)等危险(xian)性(xing)较大的(de)分项工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)应有安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案(an),并(bing)(bing)且(qie)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案(an)必(bi)须(xu)实(shi)(shi)行(xing)(xing)分级审批(pi)制度(du)(du),并(bing)(bing)根(gen)据(ju)现场情况进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)调整。在工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)实(shi)(shi)施(shi)过程(cheng)中(zhong),根(gen)据(ju)出现的(de)新情况、新问题及时完善安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案(an),力求使方案(an)技(ji)术可(ke)行(xing)(xing),经(jing)济合(he)理(li),操(cao)(cao)作(zuo)方便,针对(dui)性(xing)强,有利于保证安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan),提(ti)(ti)高(gao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)质量、加(jia)快(kuai)进(jin)(jin)(jin)度(du)(du)、降低成本。让每一个员(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)懂得安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)知(zhi)识(shi),掌(zhang)握安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)技(ji)能(neng),实(shi)(shi)现自己的(de)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)行(xing)(xing)为责任,做(zuo)到(dao)凡(fan)是进(jin)(jin)(jin)入(ru)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)现场的(de)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)必(bi)须(xu)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)法(fa)律(lv)、法(fa)规、安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)操(cao)(cao)作(zuo)技(ji)能(neng)学习,并(bing)(bing)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)严(yan)格(ge)考核,合(he)格(ge)之后,方可(ke)进(jin)(jin)(jin)场。对(dui)特(te)种(zhong)岗(gang)位(wei)作(zuo)业(ye)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)一律(lv)凭劳动管理(li)部门(men)颁发(fa)的(de)操(cao)(cao)作(zuo)岗(gang)位(wei)证书(shu)上岗(gang),对(dui)进(jin)(jin)(jin)入(ru)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)现场持(chi)证的(de)架子工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)必(bi)须(xu)定(ding)期(qi)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)检查,对(dui)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)生(sheng)产中(zhong)违章指挥的(de)管理(li)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)严(yan)厉的(de)处(chu)罚,对(dui)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)生(sheng)产中(zhong)违章操(cao)(cao)作(zuo)员(yuan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)一律(lv)停(ting)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),并(bing)(bing)根(gen)据(ju)不(bu)同情况进(jin)(jin)(jin)行(xing)(xing)处(chu)罚。

  4.加强现场安全监督

  安全人员(yuan)要加强对施工现场(chang)(chang)材(cai)料、设(she)备的(de)检查,杜(du)绝(jue)不(bu)(bu)合(he)格的(de)材(cai)料、设(she)备对人员(yuan)的(de)伤害,加大对安全工作的(de)投入(ru),坚(jian)决杜(du)绝(jue)不(bu)(bu)合(he)格的(de)假冒、伪劣产品进入(ru)工程施工现场(chang)(chang),留下(xia)安全隐患。防(fang)(fang)止(zhi)(zhi)塔(ta)机吊构失(shi)(shi)(shi)灵,吊斗(dou)失(shi)(shi)(shi)控落(luo)下(xia),砸(za)(za)伤地面(mian)施工人员(yuan);防(fang)(fang)止(zhi)(zhi)塔(ta)臂(bei)组装螺栓(shuan)强度不(bu)(bu)够,以小代(dai)大,抗剪能力削弱,螺栓(shuan)被剪切(qie)断(duan),造成塔(ta)臂(bei)失(shi)(shi)(shi)控,扯断(duan)钢萦落(luo)下(xia),砸(za)(za)伤地下(xia)工作人员(yuan)。

  5.落实安全责任制

  (1)项目经(jing)理负责制(zhi)

  项目(mu)经(jing)理(li)对(dui)承包项目(mu)工(gong)(gong)程生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)经(jing)营过程中的(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)负(fu)全(quan)(quan)面领(ling)导责任。组(zu)(zu)织落实(shi)施工(gong)(gong)组(zu)(zu)织设(she)(she)(she)计中安(an)全(quan)(quan)技术措施,组(zu)(zu)织并监督项目(mu)工(gong)(gong)程施工(gong)(gong)中安(an)全(quan)(quan)技术交底制度和设(she)(she)(she)备(bei)、设(she)(she)(she)施验收;领(ling)导、组(zu)(zu)织施工(gong)(gong)现场定(ding)期(qi)的(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)检(jian)查,发现施工(gong)(gong)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)中不安(an)全(quan)(quan)问题,组(zu)(zu)织制定(ding)措施,及时解决(jue);对(dui)上(shang)级提(ti)出(chu)的(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)与管(guan)理(li)方面的(de)问题,要定(ding)时、定(ding)人、定(ding)措施予以解决(jue);健(jian)全(quan)(quan)和完善用(yong)(yong)工(gong)(gong)管(guan)理(li)手(shou)续,录用(yong)(yong)外包工(gong)(gong)队必须及时向有关部门申报(bao),严格用(yong)(yong)工(gong)(gong)制度与管(guan)理(li),适时组(zu)(zu)织上(shang)岗安(an)全(quan)(quan)教育,要对(dui)外包工(gong)(gong)队的(de)健(jian)康与安(an)全(quan)(quan)负(fu)责,加强(qiang)劳动(dong)保(bao)护工(gong)(gong)作。

  (2)项目技术负(fu)责人负(fu)责制

  对(dui)项目(mu)工(gong)(gong)程生产(chan)经营中的(de)(de)安全生产(chan)负(fu)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)责任。主持制(zhi)定(ding)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)措(cuo)施(shi)(shi)计(ji)划和季节性(xing)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)方案的(de)(de)同(tong)时(shi)(shi),制(zhi)定(ding)相(xiang)应(ying)的(de)(de)安全技(ji)术(shu)(shu)措(cuo)施(shi)(shi)并监督执(zhi)行;参加或组织(zhi)编制(zhi)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)组织(zhi)设计(ji),编制(zhi)、审查施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)方案时(shi)(shi),要(yao)(yao)制(zhi)定(ding)、审查安全技(ji)术(shu)(shu)措(cuo)施(shi)(shi),保证其(qi)具有可行性(xing)与(yu)针对(dui)性(xing),并随时(shi)(shi)检查、监督、落实;项目(mu)工(gong)(gong)程应(ying)用新材料、新技(ji)术(shu)(shu)、新工(gong)(gong)艺(yi),要(yao)(yao)及时(shi)(shi)上报,经批准(zhun)后(hou)方可实施(shi)(shi),同(tong)时(shi)(shi)要(yao)(yao)组织(zhi)上岗人员的(de)(de)安全技(ji)术(shu)(shu)培训、教育;认真执(zhi)行相(xiang)应(ying)的(de)(de)安全技(ji)术(shu)(shu)措(cuo)施(shi)(shi)与(yu)安全操作工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)、要(yao)(yao)求,预(yu)防施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)中因(yin)化学(xue)物(wu)品引(yin)起的(de)(de)火灾、中毒或其(qi)新工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)实施(shi)(shi)中可能造成(cheng)的(de)(de)事故。定(ding)期进行安全生产(chan)检查,对(dui)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)中存在的(de)(de)不(bu)安全因(yin)素,从技(ji)术(shu)(shu)方面提出整改意见和办(ban)法(fa)予(yu)以消除(chu)。

  总之(zhi),建(jian)筑工(gong)(gong)程(cheng)施工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)过(guo)程(cheng)是(shi)个危险性(xing)大(da)、突发性(xing)强、容(rong)易发生伤亡事故的(de)(de)(de)生产过(guo)程(cheng),保证(zheng)施工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)尤为重要。首先必须建(jian)立健全(quan)(quan)(quan)法(fa)律法(fa)规,加大(da)对建(jian)筑市场的(de)(de)(de)监管(guan)。同时企业加大(da)对安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)理的(de)(de)(de)投入,经(jing)常性(xing)的(de)(de)(de)开展形(xing)式多样的(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)生产法(fa)规知识宣传(chuan),努力提高(gao)建(jian)筑工(gong)(gong)人(ren)和从业人(ren)员的(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)素质,使安(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)生产责任制逐级落实到(dao)每(mei)个工(gong)(gong)作岗位(wei)和每(mei)个人(ren)头上。

  (责任(ren)编辑:刘栋)

  收稿日(ri)期:2013-07-06

  作者简(jian)介:丁(ding)汉庆(1964-),男(nan),河北邯(han)郸人,本科在读,工程师。研究(jiu)方向(xiang):建(jian)筑安全质量管理。

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