华体会官网app下载

2018年北大中文核心期刊目录 电力工程师职称  水利施工  浙江大学学报

400-789-0619
您当前的位置: 月期刊咨询网>>城市规划论文>>城市规划中级职称论文发表关于施工现场管理模式的探讨>>正文

城市规划中级职称论文发表关于施工现场管理模式的探讨

发布时(shi)间:2014-07-18 15:10:09更(geng)新(xin)时间:2014-07-18 15:10:39所属分类:城市规划论文浏览:1次 更多优质资料,可以联系在线客服索取!

在社会主义市场经济的大环境中,施工企业之间的竞争达到了白热化的程度,提高施工现场的管理水平是每个施工企业的共识,施工现场即一个企业展示其工作水平的窗口,它既是合同履行的生产车间,也是企业利润的来源,更是发扬华体会官网app下载的前沿阵地,所以加强施工

  在社(she)会主(zhu)义市场(chang)(chang)经济的(de)(de)大(da)环境中(zhong),施(shi)(shi)工(gong)企(qi)业之间的(de)(de)竞争达到了白热化(hua)的(de)(de)程度,提(ti)高(gao)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)现(xian)(xian)(xian)场(chang)(chang)的(de)(de)管(guan)理(li)水(shui)平(ping)是每(mei)个(ge)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)企(qi)业的(de)(de)共(gong)识,施(shi)(shi)工(gong)现(xian)(xian)(xian)场(chang)(chang)即(ji)一(yi)个(ge)企(qi)业展(zhan)示其工(gong)作(zuo)水(shui)平(ping)的(de)(de)窗口,它既是合同履(lv)行的(de)(de)生产车间,也是企(qi)业利润的(de)(de)来源,更是发扬华(hua)体会官网app下(xia)载的(de)(de)前沿阵地,所以(yi)加(jia)强施(shi)(shi)工(gong)现(xian)(xian)(xian)场(chang)(chang)管(guan)理(li)的(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)十(shi)分(fen)重(zhong)要(yao)。本文就如(ru)何实现(xian)(xian)(xian)现(xian)(xian)(xian)场(chang)(chang)施(shi)(shi)工(gong)的(de)(de)精细(xi)化(hua)管(guan)理(li)模式展(zhan)开了讨论,对如(ru)何进(jin)行施(shi)(shi)工(gong)现(xian)(xian)(xian)场(chang)(chang)的(de)(de)精细(xi)化(hua)管(guan)理(li)提(ti)出了几点(dian)可行性建议。

  摘 要(yao):施工(gong)现(xian)(xian)场(chang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)模式的(de)(de)提高须要(yao)建立一支一流的(de)(de)项目管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)团队,而(er)整(zheng)个项目施工(gong)过(guo)程中的(de)(de)总体质(zhi)量要(yao)通过(guo)创建整(zheng)个施工(gong)流程中每一个过(guo)程的(de)(de)精品来(lai)实现(xian)(xian),因此施工(gong)所需的(de)(de)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)要(yao)科学组(zu)织和合理(li)(li)(li)统筹安排,以(yi)安全管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)为(wei)重要(yao)原则,规范现(xian)(xian)场(chang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)秩序,通过(guo)文明施工(gong)来(lai)提高现(xian)(xian)场(chang)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)水平和改进现(xian)(xian)场(chang)施工(gong)管(guan)理(li)(li)(li)模式,加大(da)对成(cheng)本(ben)的(de)(de)控(kong)制能力,尽最大(da)可能挖掘成(cheng)本(ben)的(de)(de)潜力。

  关键词: 城市规划中级职称论文发表,生产质量,管理模式,科学管理

  一、现场施(shi)工(gong)的质量(liang)管理和成本控制(zhi)

  现场施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)质量一直(zhi)注重过程(cheng)(cheng)和细(xi)节,一个项(xiang)目(mu)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)整(zheng)个施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过程(cheng)(cheng)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序非常繁杂而且材(cai)料(liao)众多,只有在源头控制(zhi)建(jian)筑材(cai)料(liao)的(de)(de)质量和在工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序上不断检(jian)查和验收(shou)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)近(jin)况,才能实(shi)现施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)企业所要(yao)求的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)质量目(mu)标(biao),最终(zhong)完成整(zheng)个建(jian)筑施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)过程(cheng)(cheng)。根(gen)据企业的(de)(de)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)管(guan)(guan)理体(ti)系(xi),企业要(yao)建(jian)立(li)完整(zheng)健全(quan)(quan)的(de)(de)项(xiang)目(mu)保(bao)(bao)证体(ti)系(xi)并(bing)(bing)且确(que)保(bao)(bao)质量目(mu)标(biao),就(jiu)要(yao)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)目(mu)标(biao)的(de)(de)量化(hua)分(fen)解并(bing)(bing)且形(xing)成全(quan)(quan)过程(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)质量管(guan)(guan)理控制(zhi)和成本控制(zhi)。项(xiang)目(mu)技(ji)术部门要(yao)积极根(gen)据总(zong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)质量目(mu)标(biao)和项(xiang)目(mu)管(guan)(guan)理策划(hua)制(zhi)定操作(zuo)性强(qiang)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方案,负(fu)责施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)管(guan)(guan)理的(de)(de)管(guan)(guan)理人(ren)员须要(yao)对施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)的(de)(de)操作(zuo)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)技(ji)术交底并(bing)(bing)且要(yao)对一线工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)实(shi)地培训,对后期的(de)(de)装修阶段的(de)(de)分(fen)项(xiang)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)也要(yao)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)详(xiang)细(xi)的(de)(de)策划(hua)。

  材(cai)料部(bu)门(men)须要(yao)对建(jian)筑材(cai)料的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)性能和(he)(he)(he)供(gong)应方(fang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)水平给予(yu)调查评估,所有的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大(da)(da)宗材(cai)料都必(bi)须进(jin)行招(zhao)标采购,材(cai)料供(gong)应商(shang)必(bi)须是企业批准合(he)格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料供(gong)应方(fang),材(cai)料的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)管(guan)理部(bu)门(men)和(he)(he)(he)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)检(jian)(jian)测部(bu)门(men)须要(yao)对采购材(cai)料的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)外观、品(pin)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)和(he)(he)(he)出场(chang)厂家(jia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)资(zi)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)、合(he)格证(zheng)和(he)(he)(he)检(jian)(jian)验(yan)报告(gao)等进(jin)行检(jian)(jian)查并做(zuo)好材(cai)料的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)检(jian)(jian)验(yan)和(he)(he)(he)实(shi)验(yan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作,实(shi)现(xian)对材(cai)料全方(fang)位标示,防(fang)止(zhi)不(bu)合(he)格材(cai)料的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)流入。在施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)之前要(yao)做(zuo)好样板(ban)引路制度(du)(du)(du),在达到要(yao)求的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下才能大(da)(da)面积开(kai)始施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)。严格校验(yan)制度(du)(du)(du),质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)部(bu)门(men)须要(yao)组织(zhi)严谨的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)检(jian)(jian)和(he)(he)(he)专项质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)检(jian)(jian)查,检(jian)(jian)查不(bu)合(he)格绝(jue)对不(bu)允许(xu)下道工(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)。技(ji)(ji)术资(zi)料和(he)(he)(he)保证(zheng)资(zi)料一定是同(tong)(tong)步(bu)形成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de),质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)审查资(zi)料的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)各个(ge)阶(jie)段都需要(yao)相关负(fu)责(ze)人的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)亲笔签名,树立过(guo)程(cheng)精品(pin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)理念。企业在施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)过(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)要(yao)抓好施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)就要(yao)依靠先(xian)进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)科学技(ji)(ji)术,能够及时地把质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)管(guan)理和(he)(he)(he)技(ji)(ji)术进(jin)步(bu)相结合(he),通过(guo)新技(ji)(ji)术和(he)(he)(he)新工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺来提高整个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang),加快企业的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)进(jin)度(du)(du)(du)同(tong)(tong)时也(ye)能降低工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)成(cheng)本。针对施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)过(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)存在的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技(ji)(ji)术难题(ti)和(he)(he)(he)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)难点要(yao)成(cheng)立质(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)量(liang)监督和(he)(he)(he)保障部(bu)门(men),通过(guo)企业内(nei)部(bu)控(kong)制的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)标准,进(jin)一步(bu)形成(cheng)企业内(nei)部(bu)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)法。

  二(er)、现(xian)场施工的安(an)全(quan)综(zong)合管理

  建立施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)单位、建设单位和(he)监理(li)单位三位一体的(de)(de)(de)(de)生产安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)保证体系,提高施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)生产操作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)技能(neng),加(jia)强(qiang)对企业施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)教(jiao)育培(pei)(pei)训(xun),这是避免(mian)发生安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)事故(gu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)根源,因此要(yao)制定详细的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)教(jiao)育管理(li)计划,在(zai)整个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程动工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)之(zhi)前(qian)对施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)现场(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)管理(li)培(pei)(pei)训(xun),只有安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)考(kao)试合(he)格的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)才(cai)能(neng)进(jin)入施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)现场(chang)。工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)程开工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)后(hou),施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)在(zai)待岗(gang)、转岗(gang)和(he)换(huan)岗(gang)之(zhi)前(qian)必(bi)须(xu)再(zai)一次进(jin)行(xing)(xing)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)培(pei)(pei)训(xun),其中变化工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)种的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)者(zhe)应该接受新工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)种的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)教(jiao)育细则培(pei)(pei)训(xun)。此外,施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)企业每年都要(yao)组(zu)织(zhi)定期的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)培(pei)(pei)训(xun),施(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)、法(fa)人(ren)(ren)代表和(he)项目(mu)部负责(ze)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)受训(xun)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)不(bu)得少(shao)(shao)于(yu)三十个(ge)小时(shi)(shi),专职安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)不(bu)得少(shao)(shao)于(yu)四十个(ge)小时(shi)(shi),特(te)种作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)业人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)不(bu)得少(shao)(shao)于(yu)五(wu)十小时(shi)(shi)。特(te)种作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)业人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)和(he)专职的(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)(quan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)人(ren)(ren)员(yuan)须(xu)要(yao)持(chi)证上岗(gang),并且(qie)要(yao)进(jin)行(xing)(xing)年度的(de)(de)(de)(de)培(pei)(pei)训(xun)考(kao)核,考(kao)核不(bu)合(he)格者(zhe)不(bu)得上岗(gang)。

  加(jia)强(qiang)施工(gong)方案和(he)安全(quan)(quan)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)措施的(de)(de)落(luo)实,施工(gong)企业(ye)的(de)(de)安全(quan)(quan)管理(li)人员须要(yao)(yao)经常性地进(jin)入(ru)施工(gong)现(xian)场(chang)并结合施工(gong)现(xian)场(chang)实际情况进(jin)行(xing)指导,及时(shi)(shi)(shi)调整有关安全(quan)(quan)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)指标和(he)相(xiang)关工(gong)作(zuo)。在(zai)执行(xing)工(gong)序验收的(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)时(shi)(shi)(shi)要(yao)(yao)将安全(quan)(quan)质量放在(zai)首(shou)位,在(zai)进(jin)行(xing)工(gong)作(zuo)交(jiao)(jiao)接(jie)时(shi)(shi)(shi),应该明确(que)各(ge)(ge)个工(gong)序各(ge)(ge)自的(de)(de)安全(quan)(quan)工(gong)作(zuo)职责,要(yao)(yao)在(zai)检查确(que)认(ren)的(de)(de)基础(chu)上进(jin)行(xing)及时(shi)(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)对口交(jiao)(jiao)接(jie),在(zai)交(jiao)(jiao)接(jie)的(de)(de)过程中也应当要(yao)(yao)求安全(quan)(quan)管理(li)人员参(can)加(jia)。

  认真组织(zhi)和(he)参(can)加(jia)安(an)全(quan)(quan)管理(li)部门(men)的安(an)全(quan)(quan)检(jian)查(cha),在(zai)检(jian)查(cha)前应当明(ming)确(que)检(jian)查(cha)重点、手段和(he)验收方法,对电气焊、压(ya)力溶剂和(he)易(yi)燃(ran)易(yi)爆场(chang)所和(he)专项安(an)全(quan)(quan)管理(li)安(an)全(quan)(quan)点须要(yao)进行全(quan)(quan)面的验收,及时发现问题并且正(zheng)确(que)地纠(jiu)正(zheng)处理(li),确(que)保安(an)全(quan)(quan)生产。

  建立项(xiang)(xiang)目安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)体系(xi),安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)体系(xi)是以(yi)项(xiang)(xiang)目部门(men)(men)负责(ze)人(ren)(ren)为主(zhu)、以(yi)专(zhuan)(zhuan)职(zhi)岗(gang)位安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)人(ren)(ren)员为核心、以(yi)各个专(zhuan)(zhuan)业工程(cheng)技(ji)术人(ren)(ren)员为主(zhu)要力量以(yi)及工作(zuo)人(ren)(ren)员参与的(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)层以(yi)及安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)的(de)实(shi)施层。它(ta)是既能(neng)够独立完成安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)监(jian)管(guan)又能(neng)够尽力联系(xi)施工的(de)安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)系(xi)统(tong),其中安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)层主(zhu)要包括项(xiang)(xiang)目部门(men)(men)负责(ze)人(ren)(ren)、安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)主(zhu)管(guan)和安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)专(zhuan)(zhuan)员,安(an)(an)(an)(an)全(quan)(quan)管(guan)理(li)实(shi)施层包括项(xiang)(xiang)目专(zhuan)(zhuan)业工程(cheng)师和操作(zuo)工人(ren)(ren)。

  项目安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理的(de)(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)主管(guan)(guan)(guan)是负(fu)责项目安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理的(de)(de)最直(zhi)接执(zhi)行者,对整(zheng)个(ge)项目的(de)(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理负(fu)直(zhi)接责任(ren)。安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理的(de)(de)实(shi)施层(ceng)负(fu)责安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)技术交(jiao)底(di)和安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理方案的(de)(de)具体落实(shi)工作,安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理实(shi)施层(ceng)的(de)(de)工作效果(guo)直(zhi)接影响到安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)工作的(de)(de)安(an)全(quan)(quan)(quan)管(guan)(guan)(guan)理效果(guo)。(下转第(di)93页(ye))

  (上接第91页)现场(chang)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)人(ren)员作为安(an)全生产(chan)具(ju)体工(gong)作的实施(shi)(shi)(shi)者,是施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)安(an)全工(gong)作得(de)以顺利完成(cheng)的基础(chu),只有不断提高(gao)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)人(ren)员的自我安(an)全意识(shi),规(gui)范(fan)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong),文明施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong),安(an)全施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong),才能真正保证工(gong)程施(shi)(shi)(shi)工(gong)安(an)全。

  三(san)、结论

  建(jian)筑施(shi)(shi)(shi)工过程(cheng)中(zhong)既(ji)要保证(zheng)(zheng)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工现(xian)场(chang)(chang)的(de)工程(cheng)质(zhi)量(liang),又要保证(zheng)(zheng)安(an)全生产(chan)。安(an)全工作和质(zhi)量(liang)工作如(ru)同整个(ge)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工过程(cheng)中(zhong)的(de)车之两轮皆不可偏废,因此,不仅要控(kong)制整个(ge)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工过程(cheng)中(zhong)的(de)质(zhi)量(liang)管理,更要保证(zheng)(zheng)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工过程(cheng)中(zhong)的(de)安(an)全管理,抓好现(xian)场(chang)(chang)施(shi)(shi)(shi)工的(de)安(an)全生产(chan),避免施(shi)(shi)(shi)工事故的(de)发生,以确保项目顺利完成(cheng),从而(er)提(ti)高施(shi)(shi)(shi)工企业的(de)市场(chang)(chang)竞争力(li)。

  参(can)考文献:

  [1]刘宗(zong)仁.建筑(zhu)施工(gong)技术(shu)[M].北(bei)京:北(bei)京科学(xue)技术(shu)出版(ban)社,1993:102.

  [2]张(zhang)厚(hou)先,王(wang)志清.建筑施工(gong)技术(第二(er)版)[M].北(bei)京(jing):机械工(gong)业出版社,2008:7-42,84-150.

  [3]苏永强.建(jian)筑结(jie)构(gou)抗震设计[M].(2). 北(bei)京:科学出版(ban)社(she),2003.9 单辉祖.材料力学[M].(2).北(bei)京:高(gao)等教育出版(ban)社(she),2004:8.

  [4]孙沛(pei)平.建(jian)筑(zhu)施工技(ji)术[M].北京:中国建(jian)筑(zhu)工业(ye)出版社,2000:63.

转载请注(zhu)明来自:http://ysyk365.com/chengshiguihualw/41984.html

上一篇:研究生发表论文期刊投稿格式范文参考
下一篇:月期刊网发表核心期刊论文格式范文参考